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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Alternatives to MEBR for California Cropping Systems

Location: Water Management Research

Title: Pest Control with California Approved Nursery Stock Certification 1, 3-D Treatments

Authors
item Hanson, Bradley
item Gao, Suduan
item Gerik, James
item Wang, Dong
item Qin, Ruijun - UC DAVIS

Submitted to: International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2008
Publication Date: November 10, 2008
Citation: Hanson, B.D.,S. Gao,J. Gerik,D. Wang, and R. Qin. 2008. Pest Control with California Approved Nursery Stock Certification 1, 3-D Treatments. Proceedings Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide alternatives and emission Reductions p.25,(Proceedings)

Interpretive Summary: Producers of nursery stock in California rely on preplant soil fumigation to meet requirements for nematode free planting stock. Certified clean stock is essential for successful establishment and future productivity of new orchards and vineyards and is a requirement for intra- and interstate as well as international commerce of planting materials. Historically, most field grown perennial nursery operations have used methyl bromide (MB) for preplant pest control; however, this chemical is being phased out because of its effect on stratospheric ozone. Currently the primary non-MB fumigant that meets the requirements of the Nursery Stock Nematode Certification program is 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Several factors limit the adoption of 1,3-D in perennial crop nurseries including environmental and human safety and pest control efficacy at both very shallow and deeper soil depths. This recently initiated research program is designed to address the emission reduction potential and pest control efficacy of several 1,3-D application techniques including deep placement, plastic tarps, and enhanced soil moisture and present this information to growers and pesticide regulators.

Technical Abstract: Nursery producers of perennial crops including fruit and nut trees, grapevines, and ornamentals in California rely on preplant soil fumigation to meet CDFA requirements for nematode free planting stock. Certified clean stock is essential for successful establishment and future productivity of new orchards and vineyards and is a requirement for intra- and interstate as well as international commerce of planting materials. Historically, most field grown perennial nursery operations have used methyl bromide (MB) for preplant pest control because the chemical can effectively diffuse through the soil profile, penetrate existing roots, and has dependably provided effective pest control across a range of soil type and moisture conditions. Currently the primary non-MB fumigant that meets the requirements of the CDFA’s Nursery Stock Nematode Certification program is 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Several factors limit the adoption of 1,3-D in perennial crop nurseries including environmental and human safety concerns and pest control efficacy. In these recently established large field experiments, Telone II was applied at 332 kg/ha using a conventional shanks or Buessing shanks (split-depth application) and included several surface seal techniques (plastic tarps, water seals, additional fumigant) designed to reduce 1,3-D emissions or increase efficacy. Preliminary data from two ongoing field trials indicate that soil pathogen control and weed control usually was best with methyl bromide and tarped 1,3-D treatments. Nematode bioassay data suggest that surface treatments had little effect on nematode control with 1,3-D; however, resident nematode populations may respond differently. These trials are ongoing through 2010 and future reports will present a more complete analysis of the effects of these methyl bromide alternative treatments.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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