CONSERVATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF CROP GENETIC RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION
Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit
Title: Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .
Submitted to: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: August 25, 2008
Publication Date: September 7, 2008
Citation: Morris, J.B., Wang, M.L. 2008. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference.
Interpretive Summary: Interpretive Summary not required for Abstract.
Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins as well as related flavonoid compounds (quercetin and kaempferol) are present in flowers, leaves, and seeds. Anthocyanins are not only responsible for leaf, stem, flower, and seed color but can inhibit LDL oxidation as well as hypertension in humans while the antioxidants, quercetin and kaempferol are known to be anticancer compounds. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of anthocyanin and related flavonoid compounds from leaves and flowers of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata. An Opti Sciences CCM-200 chlorophyll content meter was converted to an experimental hand held anthocyanin meter. The manufacturer replaced the 655 nm light emitting diode (LED) of the CCM with a 520 nm LED in order to measure absorbance near the wavelength at which free anthocyanin aglycones, cyanidin and pelargonidin monoglucosides absorb. Anthocyanin indexes will be recorded from each of three leaves and flowers using this modified anthocyanin meter. Preliminary analysis revealed that leaf anthocyanin indexes ranged from 7.1 - 8.8 for A. theophrasti and 36.4 -47.9 for U. lobata. However, flower anthocyanin indexes from U. lobata ranged from 19.6 - 20.9. As of 17 June 2008, U.lobata produced a significantly higher anthocyanin index (17.3) than all other species tested. However, B. alba produced the second highest anthocyanin index (12.5) which was significantly higher than both M. uniflorum and A. theophrasti. We will determine the amount of quercetin and kaempferol from these species as well. A useful, quantitative method employed in the quantification of anthocyanin indexes from Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata will be demonstrated. These species can serve as potential new sources of high anthocyanins to be introduced into breeding lines or cultivars and/or used as a pharmaceutical or nutraceutical crop in the southeastern U.S.