Submitted to: XXI International Congress of Entomology, Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 14, 2008
Publication Date: July 8, 2008
Citation: Heath, R.R., Kendra, P.E., Epsky, N.D. 2008. New developments in food-based synthetic attractants for pest Tephritidae. XXI International Congress of Entomology, Proceedings. Technical Abstract: Optimal capture of several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera spp. tephritid fruit flies is in traps baited with the aqueous protein bait Nulure combined with borax. Nulure is produced by acid hydrolysis of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline and more attractive to several fruit fly species. We report herein research on chemical modifications of Nulure to identify volatiles responsible for attraction and also to improve stability The pH of Nulure solutions was modified by addition of borax or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a range of pH4 to pH10. Stability was monitored and ammonia release rate was quantified over a 14 d period. Electroantenography was used to determine antennal sensitivity for Anastrepha suspensa females, and field tests were conducted to determine effect on trapping efficacy. It was observed that the zwitter ion effect plays a critical and confounded role on pH stability in aqueous solutions. Stabilization of pH was noted when propylene glycol was added at a 10% (vol:vol) concentration. Highest field capture of females was in traps baited with synthetic lures ammonium acetate and putrescine in combination with Nulure at pH7 with NaOH and 10% propylene glycol. Chemical analysis will be used to identify additional attractant chemicals from modified Nulure bait solutions for use in food-based synthetic lures.