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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: Developing Accurate and Globally Accepted Near Infrared Reflectance (Nir) Analytical Standards of Soybean Sugar Compositions

Location: Functional Foods Research Unit

Project Number: 3620-41000-150-05
Project Type: Reimbursable

Start Date: May 01, 2014
End Date: Apr 30, 2016

Objective:
Overall objective of this two-year project is to develop globally accepted Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) analytical standards for carbohydrates (sugars) in soybean seeds. We plan to build on existing work funded by cooperator to expand our sugar analysis to develop robust NIR calibrations for several NIR instruments of varied manufacturers to include soybeans grown in other parts of the world (e.g., Brazil, China, Argentina, India). We are seeking to expand our carbohydrate compositional database for soybeans by incorporating our proven wet chemical analysis capabilities (HPLC, GC/MS, LC/MS, etc.) with the analysis of soy samples of different varietals and cultivars from various growing locations from around the world. We plan on providing these NIR scans and carbohydrate values for incorporation to allow other NIR systems access to more accurate NIR calibrations for soy carbohydrate composition.

Approach:
This proposed project is developed (1) to obtain NIR spectra of both raw (ground and whole beans) and toasted soybean seeds and meals for measuring carbohydrates in soybean seeds from around the world; (2) to accurately quantify soluble oligosaccharide components of soybean meal that influence soybean feed characteristics, i.e., quantitative analysis of the major, extractable soluble oligosaccharide products (i.e. sucrose, raffinose, stachyose) from soybean meal (raw and toasted) by HPLC-RID (refractive index detection) or HPAEC-PAD (high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection) and/or GC or GC-MS methodology to enable simultaneous characterization and quantification of component non-reducing sugars; (3) to accurately determine composition of total monosaccharides (i.e. free xylose, arabinose,rhamnose, glucose, galactose, mannose, etc.) by GC or GC/MS. Requires chemical modification to prepare volatile sugar derivatives suitable for GC analysis (e.g. peracetylation, alditol acetates, or aldononitrile acetate); (4) to quantify total acid labile sugars by GC and/or GC/MS. Major expectation is for starch and or maltose sugars; (5) to quantify acid-labile insoluble fiber/polysaccharides: (a) cellulosics, and/or (b) hemi-cellulosic arabinoxylans by GC or GC/MS analysis of component Glc, Xyl, and Ara, and potentially also Gal. The cellulosic/hemicellulosic ratio is determined from the ratio of component monosaccharides; and (6) to compare NIR results and HPLC/GC-MS analyses on toasted and non-toasted (ground and whole beans) soybean seeds and meals. The goal of the proposed project is to build the technological foundation for providing soybean breeders and other NIR users with rapid, consistent, and cost-effective NIR analytical standards to assess rapidly and accurately the available carbohydrates in raw and thermally-processed soybean, which ultimately will help develop soybean seeds with desirable feed and food quality traits. Long Range Strategic Plan Objective: The proposed project uses the most popular and developed NIR instruments to measure soybean seeds and meals for carbohydrates then compares the obtained spectra of NIR to the wet chemistry testing that is conducted in parallel to the NIR measurements. The calibration of the NIR will be obtained based on the wet chemistry done by experts with the most sophisticated scientific instruments and techniques. The calibration will be a significant improvement with data from analyzing soybean samples from all five world top soybean producers (U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and India). The project will ultimately lead to accurate and rapid NIR analytical standards for measuring important compositional traits of soybean and meals with a global acceptance, which ultimately benefits U.S. soybean export by demonstrating convincingly the superior component value of U.S. soybean.

Last Modified: 8/30/2014
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