Location: Crops Pathology and Genetics Research
Project Number: 2032-22000-015-00
Start Date: May 09, 2012
End Date: May 08, 2017
OBJECTIVE 1: Subobjective 1.1-Almond and walnut orchards affected by crown and/or root rot in the Central Valley of California will be located and surveyed through consultation with University of California Farm Advisors in each county where the crops are grown on thousands of acres. The number of orchards surveyed in each county will be roughly proportional to the local incidence and severity of crown and root rot losses on the crops of interest; the goal will be to sample intensively enough to detect all aggressive pathogens that are causing high incidence and severity of disease. Subobjective 1.2-Field and greenhouse bioassay experiments will be used to examine PRD-microorganism associations in multiple almond and peach replant soils. Soil in these trials will receive the following treatments: non-treated control; broad spectrum soil disinfestation; and in some cases, semi-selective chemicals. Subobjective 1.3-Examine the following A. tumefaciens population parameters under commercial nursery conditions: 1)proportion of A. tumefaciens population with the Ti-plasmid and, 2)total Agrobacterium population. Subobjective 1.4-Use biological assays to establish the presence of grapevine necrotic union (GNU) agent in the rootstock. OBJECTIVE 2: Subobjective 2.1-characterize the genetic diversity of A. tumefaciens using three approaches; REP-PCR, fatty acid methyl ester profiles (FAME) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 7 housekeeping genes. Subobjective 2.2-Graft transmission into test grapevines. Subobjective 3.1-Predetermined rootstocks will be used to challenge resistance of standard and prospective rootstocks for their respective hosts. OBJECTIVE 3: Subobjective 3.2-Test standard and prospective almond and peach rootstocks for their resistance to Prunus Replant Disease under orchard and greenhouse conditions. Subobjective 3.3-Open pollinated seeds will be collected, stratified and propagated from each mother tree for evaluation of Crown Gall resistance. Subobjective 3.4-Develop a MeBr independent approach to produce crown gall free Paradox rootstocks under commercial nursery conditions. Subobjective 3.5-Construct a chimeric gene to express hairpin RNA (hRNA) corresponding to the 3'end of RNA-1 and RNA-2. Initiate agro-mediated transformation of a WIP clone 48-12 to express the hRNA. Evaluate transformed WIP clones for Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) resistance. Subobjective 3.6-Establishment of grapevines with Grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). Graft inoculations and evaluation for resistance/susceptibility. OBJECTIVE 4: Subobjective 4.1-Study of host-pathogen genetic interactions underlying the broad host range and evaluate host-induced epigenetic alterations. Subobjective 4.2-Determine phosphonate mode of action and drug target mutant screening.