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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Research Project: Pest Risk Analyses for Temperate Fruit Flies in Exported Fruits

Location: Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research

Project Number: 2092-22430-001-12
Project Type: Reimbursable

Start Date: Jan 15, 2011
End Date: Dec 31, 2014

Objective:
Trade barriers exist on the import of apples and cherries from the Pacific Northwest based on the presumed risk of temperate fruit flies entering and establishing in export market countries. A multi-faceted or systems approach taking into account potential fly distribution, fly detection, and fly identification components are addressed in this project. In this project we plan to evaluate potential fly distributions through modeling, evaluate attractants for flies, evaluate methods to discriminate closely related fly species, and to develop collaborations for modeling risk of infestations in orchards.

Approach:
A. Collect existing data on basic biology of apple maggot in the Eastern U.S. and Mexico versus Pacific Northwest including obligate diapausing, facultative diapausing, and non-diapausing portions of the population. Collect existing data on WCFF in the Pacific Northwest. Data will include host range, distribution maps, climatic data, growth optima, upper and lower thermal limits, degree day models, diapause induction, maintenance, and completion. B. Enter existing data on AM and WCFF biology as well as environmental data of importing countries into risk modeling programs. Determine baseline for risk, and identify research gaps. C. Determine critical parameters (i.e. photoperiod, chilling requirement) for diapause induction and completion in apple maggot from Washington State. We will include obligate diapausing, facultative diapausing, and putative non-diapausing portions of AM populations. D. Determine critical parameters for growth and development of apple maggot and Western cherry fruit fly under climatic conditions specific for tropical regions. E. Identify improved attractants, such as fruit volatiles, for apple maggot fly in the Western U.S. Improved attractants will improve the accuracy of the data used for pest distribution, numbers (load factor), and help in establishing and maintaining quarantine areas. In addition, improved trapping methodologies will increase confidence in pest control measures with our trading partners. F. Demonstrate that morphometric and molecular methods can reliably separate the apple maggot and snowberry maggot. Misidentification of a non-quarantine pest as a quarantine pest can adversely affect trade and negatively impact risk assessment models. G. Hold a regional workshop on Western cherry fruit fly. The specific topic to be addressed is how to develop a model that can be used to predict the probability of an orchard being infested with cherry fruit fly.

Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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