DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE BASE AND QUANTITATIVE TOOLS FOR OPTIMAL CROPS AND MGMT PRACTICES FOR VARIABLE LTD WATER CONDITIONS IN THE GREAT PLAINS
Location: Agricultural Systems Research Unit
Project Number: 5402-61660-006-07
Specific Cooperative Agreement
Start Date: Aug 01, 2008
End Date: Jul 31, 2013
1) Combine expertise of the USDA-ARS, Agricultural Systems Research Unit (ASRU) in process-based models of cropping systems with cutting-edge dry-land and limited-irrigation experimental research of the Colorado State University (CSU), working in collaboration with the leading ARS limited-irrigation Water Management Research in Fort Collins, the ARS dry-land cropping research at Akron, CO, and irrigation research at the CSU Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, to create a center of excellence in water limited agro-ecosystems research; 2) use 22 years of experimental data on dry-land cropping systems obtained under prior cooperative CSU-ASRU research and on-going CSU limited-water research to advance understanding of biophysical processes in water-limited cropping of the Great Plains and management practices that promote long-term sustainability of agriculture, water, and the environment; 3) synthesize and quantify that understanding with the help of process models of these systems; and 4) develop quantitative, whole-system based, guidance and decision tools for site-specific optimum crop selections and water-related management for the producers.
The CSU-ASRU Cooperative field studies of several dry-land crop rotations on three soil types along a sloping catena of soil types, at each of the three eastern Colorado north-south locations, will be continued for another two years. This will complete the cycles of all dry-land crop rotations being evaluated and provide valuable data on the performance of different crop rotations for 24 years, first 12 years with normal to above normal rainfall and the next 12 years with subnormal rainfall. The detailed measurements of rainfall, runoff, and soil water dynamics (to deduce evaporation and plant uptake) on one location, started two years ago, will be continued and enhanced with measurements of water and N balance in limited-irrigation crop rotation research studies in Fort Collins, CO. At the same time, the existing 22 years of experimental data will be analyzed to relate the year to year production of major crops to variable rainfall and soil water availability at different growth stages, soils, topographic locations, and climates, using statistical and process modeling approaches. The data on soil carbon changes under no-till cropping systems available from the above studies will also be quantified with respect to above conditions. Based on the enhanced understanding derived from above analyses, after first two years, new innovative ways to increase precipitation storage efficiency and water use efficiencies by crops, such as by reducing soil evaporation losses, will be explored under controlled conditions. The knowledge and syntheses derived from above studies will be used to derive simpler tools to guide selection of optimal crops (including bio-energy crops) and conservation/management practices for variable water availabilities for sustainable production and environment.