Sugar Beet Germplasm Enhancement, Breeding, and Genetics
Crop Improvement and Protection Research
Project Number: 5305-21000-014-00
Start Date: Jul 19, 2013
End Date: Jul 18, 2018
The long-term objective of this project is to develop improved, elite sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris) pre-breeding germplasm with characterized resistance to rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, vectored by Polymyxa betae), and sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN, Heterodera schachtii). Sources of resistance in cultivated and wild germplasm will be evaluated, characterized, and introgressed into elite sugar beet lines and populations for release. Progeny lines and populations will be developed to characterize the inheritance of resistance. Sources of resistance will be evaluated in field and controlled-environment trials. Wild and weedy populations of Beta species in California will be collected and characterized. DNA analyses of collected samples will provide knowledge of the populations for improved management techniques. Over the next 60 months the program will focus on the following objectives:
Objective 1: Identify and characterize novel sources of resistance against sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN) to develop and release disease-resistant, improved sugar beet germplasm.
Sub-objective 1.A. Identify Beta plants with resistance to SBCN for development of improved sugar beet germplasm.
Sub-objective 1.B. Determine nature of SBCN resistance inheritance.
Objective 2: Characterize resistance of cultivated and wild Beta species to infection by Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV), the causal agent of rhizomania, and its vector Polymyxa betae and identify novel sources useful to public and private sugar beet breeders.
Sub-objective 2.A. Evaluate Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (BVM) accessions under two strains of the rhizomania-causing virus to identify new sources of resistance to develop and release resistant sugar beet germplasm.
Sub-objective 2. B. Develop quantification assay to evaluate root colonization frequencies by P. betae.
Sub-objective 2.C. Identify and characterize sources of resistance to Polymyxa betae using real-time PCR to quantify level of infection.
Objective 3: Determine relationships within and between wild/weedy Beta populations collected in California’s Imperial Valley using genetic markers for characterization of phylogeny and diversity.
Screen Beta germplasm to characterize sources of SBCN resistance and develop sugar beet pre-breeding material. Characterize genetic resources to determine how resistance against SBCN is inherited. Identify new sources of resistance to wild type and resistance breaking isolates of BNYVV in BVM accessions. Provide a real time PCR technique that can assess amplification efficiency and accurately quantify P. betae in host tissue. Identify sources of resistance to Polymyxa betae and characterize the mechanisms of inheritance. Collect representative samples from wild and weedy Beta ssp. populations existing in and around commercial sugar beet fields in Imperial Valley, California, and determine phylogeny and diversity.