1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Identification of semiochemicals for use in control and monitoring of pests in Africa that have significant potential to become invasive pests the United States including Hemiptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Acari and root-knot nematodes.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
The chemically mediated communication biology of invertebrate pests of Africa that have significant potential for establishment as invasive pests in the United States will be elucidated through behavioral analysis and the chemicals responsible for attraction, repellence or deterrence will be elucidated using chromatographic, spectroscopic and microdegradative techniques coupled with biological assays. Additionally, the hormonal systems responsible for regulating communication, and coordination with stage development and reproductive competence will be elucidated. Synthetic or natural chemicals responsible for attraction/ repellence will be formulated and tested to determine efficacy in monitoring and control of the pests and new hormonal methods to interfere with insect communication and development will be defined.
This work directly relates to sub-objective 2d. Identification of oviposition deterring pheromones for Tephritid Fruit Flies and 2e. Influence of Fruit Volatiles on attraction of Small Hive Beetles.
The role of ovipositon deterring pheromones was investigated was investigated among six species of Tephritid fruit flies that are potentially invasive and quarantine pests for the United States. In bioassays it was determined that five of the six species apply oviposition deterring pheromones to fruit after oviposition. Chemical studies resulted in collection and partial purification of oviposition deterring pheromones for two species. Research was conducted on development of semiochemicals for monitoring of the large hive beetle, Oplostomus haroldi, results have led to development of an effective lure and trap combination useful for monitoring populations in the field and at ports of entry as an early detection system should the pest invade the United States.