Location: Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research
2013 Annual Report
To reduce the environmental and safety concerns associated with organophosphates and other harsh insecticides, orchardists have switched to the newer, “reduced-risk” chemistries (Altacor® - rynaxypyr, Delegate® - spinetoram, and Calypso® - thiacloprid) for codling moth control. These new chemistries have been effective in codling moth control; however, orchardists are concerned about the potential development of resistance to these agents. The overall goal of this project is to study the molecular mechanisms the codling moth may use to develop resistance to these “reduced-risk” insecticides. These molecular mechanisms will include target modifications (nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - spinetoram and thiacloprid; ryanodine receptor –rynaxypyr) and expression of detoxification enzymes (cytochrome P450s, esterases, and glutathione S-transferases). Our first objective was to obtain the sequences for gene transcripts encoding for the targets and potential detoxification enzymes for the “reduced-risk” insecticides. Through a codling moth transcriptome, we have identified transcripts encoding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (20 including splice variants), the ryanodine receptor (1), cytochrome P450s (76), esterases (50) and glutathione S-transferases (20). We are currently in the process of cloning each transcript to verify their expression and nucleotide sequence.