2013 Annual Report
Currently, chemical controls are being used in California for spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, (SWD) and Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, (ACP). Common chemicals used for control of SWD are: Malathion, Warrior, Dimethoate, Entrust, and Delegate. The top six chemicals recommended for control of ACP are Lorsban Advanced, Sevin. Delegate, Dimethoate, and Altacor. Introduction of fruit flies into the U.S. mainland is causing quarantine problems in many areas preventing export of valuable crops. To be eligible for movement within or outside of the quarantined area, a minimum of four applications must be made during the pre-harvest treatment period of malathion protein bait or GF-120 Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait. The pre-harvest treatment period is a minimum of 30 days, but could be longer, depending on the life cycle degree-day calculations. One current question being asked is whether treatments for SWD would suffice for the protein bait spray requirement against fruit flies. Outside of malathion protein bait sprays and GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait, little information is available on other insecticides. Studies are currently being conducted on the efficacy of various foliar insecticides to Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, Malaysian fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center (PBARC) scientists in Hilo, Hawaii, are addressing insecticides currently recommended for SWD control (e.g., Malathion, Warrior, Dimethoate, Entrust, and Delegate). Later tests may also examine insecticides recommended for ACP control (e.g., Lorsban Advanced, Sevin. Delegate, Dimethoate, and Altacor). The effects of weathering on foliar deposits of promising insecticides against adults of tephritid fruit flies will be compared at the Pacific Basin Agricutural Research Center. Bait spray and cover spray treatments are being applied to guava foliage and efficacy determined. Twigs with guava leaves are sprayed, allowed to weather, and then exposed for 24-48 hours to a fixed population of the four species of tephritid fruit flies inside cages. Mortality is being recorded. Although a combination of malathion and protein hydrolysate or GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait have become the preferred insecticide treatment for use against fruit flies, data obtained through these tests may provide information on alternative treatments and their residual effectiveness, particularly those treatments being used against SWD and ACP, for development of a systems approach for movement of produce from fruit fly quarantine areas.