2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Determine how varying production environments affect the relative performance of B. carinata.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
To establish a basic understanding of the yield performance of Brassica carinata relative to other oilseed crops across diverse environments, four genotypes of B. carinata provided by Agrisoma Biosciences Inc. (Agrisoma), will be compared to two genotypes each of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and C. sativa, in a series of small plot experiments at ARS locations in Ames, IA, Morris, MN, Mandan, ND, Akron, CO, Sydney, MT, Maricopa, AZ, Moscow, ID, Pendleton, OR, and Parlier, CA, representing a diversity of growing environments. All of these oilseeds will be grown in four replicated plots (~6m x 4.5m wide) at each location listed, for a total of 40 plots for each location’s experimental planting. To shed light on the physiological basis for a Brassica carinata’s anticipated yield advantages over other oilseeds in most locations (in response to differing environments), detailed descriptions of agronomically important phenotypes will be performed, many determined by HTP methods. Phenotypes associated with a genotype’s ability to respond successfully to drought stress (e.g., crop height, leaf area index, plant canopy reflectance, and canopy temperature) will be measured once per week using hand-held instruments. We will also measure the isotopic signature of carbon in grain to indicate the degree of water stress under grain filling.
This subordinate project contributes to objective 2A of the parent project: Determine productivity and profitability of integrating alternative forage and biofuel crops into wheat-based production systems. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the relative performance of Brassica carinata, which is noted for its drought and heat tolerance. In FY2013, replicated field experiments with two genotypes of B. carinata and two genotypes each of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Camelina sativa were established at ARS locations near Pendleton, Oregon; Ames, Iowa; Morris, Minnesota; Mandan, North Dakota; Akron, Colorado; Sydney, Monatana; Temple, Texas; and Parlier, California. Frequent measurements of crop biomass, leaf area index, plant canopy reflectance, canopy temperature were obtained over the growing season to identify phenotypes associated with a genotype’s ability to withstand stress. Plots planted to spring and winter oilseed crops were harvested for determination of grain quality and yield. Work will continue in FY2014 to enlarge the database that will be used to compare the performance of these oilseed crops among a diversity of growing environments.