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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: Development of Detection, Quarantine Treatments and Control/eradication Systems for Crops Susceptible to Tephritid Fruit Fly in the U.S.

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

2013 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Identify components of systems approaches that would include less than probit 9 treatment efficacies (i.e. methyl bromide and other fumigation, heat/cold, irradiation, etc) as part of an overall systems approach, with and without other systems components. 2. Develop alternative models to predict expiration of fruit flies as a result of imposed quarantines where methods of control and calculations of time to expiation can be evaluated, tested and verified. Determine if in-field and/or post harvest mitigations (i.e. inspection, sampling, packaging, etc) can reduce time to declare eradication and lift export restrictions. 3. Assess if new industry initiatives such as combining treatment options could work operationally in cooperation with regulatory cooperators and models using expert evaluations and risk assessments (i.e. @Risk)


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
I. Identify components of systems approaches that would include less than probit 9 treatment efficacies (i.e. fumigation, heat/cold, irradiation, etc) as part of an overall systems approach, with and without other systems components. II. Develop alternative models to predict expiration of fruit flies as a result of imposed quarantines where methods of control and calculations of time to expiation can be evaluated, tested and verified. Determine if in-field and/or post harvest mitigations (i.e. inspection, sampling, packaging, etc) can reduce time to declare eradication and lift export restrictions. III. Assess if new industry initiatives such as combining treatment options could work operationally in cooperation with regulatory cooperators and models using expert evaluations and risk assessments (i.e. @Risk).


3.Progress Report:

The goal of the project is to identify components of systems approaches, to develop alternative models to predict expiration of fruit flies, and assess new industry initiatives and combined treatment options to work in cooperation with regulatory models which contributes to objective 1 of the in-house project, "Study population dynamics and pest interactions with their natural enemies, host plants, and other pests in the ecosystem.

An apparatus that detects Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-tagged fruit flies has been developed and tested in a field enclosure. This apparatus is specially designed to allow tagged flies to land only on areas where they can be detected. Work is ongoing to use RFID tagged fruit flies to analyze individual-level responses to lures under semi-natural conditions. In addition, automatic vision-based detection and quantification was used to create a high-resolution dataset representing the response of colony-reared melon flies to cuelure at different times of the day. Computer vision method and results with melon fly have been published, (Manoukis, Nicholas C., Jan, Eric B. 2013. The diurnal rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae [Diptera: Tephitidae] Attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 106(1):136-142), and the same method has been employed in a study on oriental fruit fly responses to methyl eugenol and basil oil. A systems approach employing two independent components (1) areas of low prevalence (AOLP) and (2) a methyl bromide fumigation is being developed for areas where emergency quarantines are imposed as a result of fruit fly detections in California. The systems approach allow for growers impacted by an 81 square mile quarantine to move products as long as certain regulatory conditions are met. Studies using landscape level Geographic Information System/Global Positioning System (GIS/GPS) along with improved methods to assess the actual distance of response of fruit flies has been initiated using mark-release-recapture of marked flies. A novel method for determining time to expiriation of a fruit fly quarantine has been developed using a day-degree-based model that includes the affects of temperatures on the estimated time for declaring eradication of fruit fly outbreak in states such as California and Florida.


Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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