Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information
Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)
Project Number: 5358-21000-044-00
Start Date: Feb 26, 2013
End Date: Feb 25, 2018
Objective 1. Conservation: Efficiently and effectively conserve, back-up, regenerate, characterize, and evaluate temperate-adapted fruit, nut and specialty crop genetic resources and distribute germplasm and associated information worldwide.
Sub-objective 1a. Efficiently and effectively manage crop genetic resources emphasizing temperate fruit, nut, and specialty crop germplasm including Corylus, Fragaria, Humulus, Mentha, Pyrus, Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium and their crop wild relatives; test for and eliminate pests and pathogens; Backup/regenerate primary collections via on-site replicated plantings, in vitro culture, or conservation at remote sites.
Sub-objective 1b. Characterize and evaluate (genotype and phenotype) to confirm taxonomic and horticultural identity, and evaluate character traits of assigned germplasm.
Sub-objective 1c. Distribute assigned germplasm and document plant information in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) and GRIN-Global.
Objective 2. Acquisition: Strategically fill gaps in the current coverage of temperate-adapted fruit, nut and specialty crop collections through international and domestic germplasm exchanges and plant explorations.
Sub-objective 2a. Acquire germplasm samples of Corylus, Fragaria, Humulus, Pyrus, Mentha, Ribes, Rubus, Vaccinium, and their relatives via plant exploration and exchange. Target germplasm from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa to fill current gaps identified in crop germplasm committee vulnerability statements and as opportunities arise through country agreements.
Sub-objective 2b. Survey existing U.S. domestic collections of priority crops; acquire material to fill gaps in NPGS collections. Emphasize Corylus, Fragaria, Humulus, Mentha, Pyrus, Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium, and their relatives.
Objective 3. Tissue culture and Cryogenics: Safeguarding Collections: In collaboration with other NPGS genebanks and research projects, devise superior tissue culture and cryopreservation methods to safeguard temperate-adapted fruit, nut and specialty crop collections.
Sub-objective 3a. Improve mineral nutrition of in vitro plants.
Sub-objective 3b. Optimize mineral nutrition of in vitro storage medium on plantlet storage time.
Sub-objective 3c. Determine the effect of addition of antioxidants on plant recovery from cryopreservation.
Objective 4: Genetic Marker Systems: In collaboration with other NPGS genebanks and research projects, develop novel genetic marker systems for temperate-adapted fruit, nut and specialty crop genetic resources. Apply those markers to more efficiently and effectively manage the site’s germplasm collections and to facilitate their use in breeding and research projects.
Sub-objective 4a. Develop reliable fingerprinting sets and enter information to the GRIN-Global or other databases.
Sub-objective 4b. Develop new high throughput genetic marker systems (Fragaria and Rubus).
Sub-objective 4c. Develop trait-associated markers for efficiently identifying strawberry germplasm with desired red stele resistance and remontancy phenotypes.
The Corvallis Repository genebank has responsibility for temperate fruit, nut, and specialty crop genera: Corylus, Fragaria, Pyrus, Rubus, and Vaccinium, Cydonia, Humulus, Mentha, Ribes, Actinidia and Juglans (J. cinerea). Clones of specific genotypes are maintained in greenhouses, screenhouses, field collections, and as tissue cultured plants. Wild species are maintained as seed. When new accessions are received, information is entered to GRIN. Identity is checked by morphological and molecular means, and recorded. Locations are entered. Pathogen status is evaluated and recorded. Alternative backup procedures and remote backup locations are arranged and recorded. Genotype and phenotype are evaluated and added to GRIN. Background, passport, and pedigree information will be entered. Information will be migrated to the new system GRIN-Global. In-vitro cultures will be used as alternative storage and as a secure backup. Cultures of core accessions, requested germplasm, and accessions at risk in the field and screenhouse will be initiated into culture, multiplied, and stored at 4' C. Collection of genera will be prioritized by season, material available, requests and research in progress. Assistance with in vitro culture and cold storage protocols will be provided to other laboratories. Healthy, pathogen negative plants will be maintained and propagules will be distributed for research purposes. Phytosanitary certification is be obtained and materials are distributed according to international, regional and local quarantine regulations. Representative seedlots of diverse wild species with long-lived seeds are kept in freezers. Many species are also represented as clones from a specific seedlots. Seedlots are tested for viability. Representative seed samples are be sent for backup preservation in base collections. The Corvallis Genebank participates in inter-agency in situ conservation programs. The repository acquires new germplasm from foreign and domestic sources. New and improved culture media are being researched for repository genera. Effect of antioxidants in cryopreservation protocols are being examined. Cultivar identification is being expanded through new marker technology. Identity of genotypes of world genebanks is being compared. Genomic infrastructure for discovering valuable markers linked to traits of economic importance is being developed. Linkage maps and QTL association are being used for the development of marker-based tests for germplasm characterization traits of crops in the NCGR collection.