2013 Annual Report
Objective 2: Develop improved formulations and new products for more effectively controlling floodwater mosquitoes using biological control agents and natural products. Sub-objective 2A: Determine key physiological processes in the embryonating and embryonated eggs that may suggest new ovicidal targets or markers. Sub-objective 2B: Discover biopesticides with ovicidal activity. Sub-objective 2C: Develop effective formulations of selected biopesticides/natural products with demonstrated ovicidal effects to enhance penetration and lethality.
Chemical control using synthetic insecticides are commonly used in controlling imported fire ants, including red imported fire ant and black imported fire ants. Knowledge on toxic tolerance of fire ants is important in developing effective chemical control products and methods. Progress has been made in understanding the toxic tolerance of the imported fire ants to synthetic insecticides and defensive compounds from other ants. Red imported fire ants have been found to be significantly more tolerant to insecticides and ant defensive compounds than the black imported fire ants. The mechanism of toxic tolerance in fire ants was also investigated. It was found that esterase activities in red imported fire ants were more than three times higher than those in the black imported fire ants. 2-tridecanone, an ant defensive chemical from tawny crazy ants, showed significantly greater inhibition to esterases in the black imported fire ants than those in red imported fire ants. In the current practice, chemical control technology in fire ant management is not species-specific. In other words, the same dose of active ingredient is usually recommended for both red imported fire ants and black imported fire ants. The differentiation of toxic tolerance should justify a different application dose of insecticides for these two ant species or at least warrant further investigation on this topic. Progress has also been made in the research on biological control of imported fire ants using pathogenic microorganisms. A standard methodology has been developed to evaluate entomopathogenic fungi and natural products under laboratory conditions.
Sakhanokho, H.F., Sampson, B.J., Tabanca, N., Wedge, D.E., Demirci, B., Husnu Can Baser, K., Bernier, U.R., Tsikolia, M., Agramonte, N.M., Becnel, J.J., Rajasekaran, K., Chen, J., Spiers, J.M. 2013. Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils. Molecules. 18:4308-4327. Li, S., Jin, X., Chen, J., Lu, S. 2013. Inhibitory activities of venom alkaloids from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, against the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (E.F. Smith) Davis et al. in vitro and the application of. International Journal of Pest Management. 59:150-156. Tabanca, N., Ali, A., Bernier, U.R., Khan, I.A., Kocyigit-Kaymakciogl, B., Oruc-Emre, E.E., Unsalan, S., Rollas, S. 2012. Biting deterrence and insecticidal activity of hydrazide–hydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti. Pest Management Science. 69:703-708. Ali, A., Cantrell, C.L., Bernier, U.R., Duke, S.O., Schneider, J.C., Agramonte, N.M., Khan, I. 2012. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Medical Entomology. 49:1370-1378. Tabanca, N., Wedge, D.E., Ali, A., Khan, I.A., Kaplancikli, Z.A., Altintop, M.D. 2012. Antifungal, misquito deterrent, and larvicidal activity of N-(benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic acid hydrazide derivatives. Research and Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. 22:2602-2609. Ali, A., Tabanca, N., Demirci, B., Baser, K., Ellis, J., Gray, S., Lackey, B., Murphy, C., Khan, I.A., Wedge, D.E. 2013. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire). Natural Product Communications. 8(2):257-260. Kaymakcioglu, B., Celen, A.O., Nurhayat, T., Abbas, A., Khan, S.I., Khan, I.A., Wedge, D.E. 2013. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted urea and thiourea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moiety. Molecules. 18(3):3562-3576. Zhao, L., Chen, J., Jones, W.A. 2012. Transcription profiling of guanine nucleotide binding proteins during developmental regulation, and pesticide response in Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Insect Physiology. 4:1-9. Jin, X., Huang, Y., Thomson, S.J., Elliott, R.B. 2013. Effects of conidial densities and spray volume of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana fungal suspensions on conidial viability, droplet size and deposition coverage in bioassay using a novel bioassay spray system. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 23:362-366.