1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Assess distribution patterns of insects, including red flour beetle, in rice mills.
2. Evaluate factors that influence capture of beetles.
3. Assess survival of the red flour beetle on different rice milling components.
4. Evaluate efficacy of surface insecticide.
5. Conduct economic risk/benefit analysis of an IPM program for rice mills.
6. Integrate results into web-based management system for rice mills.
7. Disseminate results through Extension and Education programs.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
This research project will focus on determining relationship of outside pest populations to critical entry points in rice mills. Distribution and abundance of target pest in residual accumulations of milling fractions and components will also be assessed, along with development of the red flour beetle on these different components. Impacts of accumulations of milling components on residual efficacy of surface contact insecticides will also be determined. Data from these projects mentioned above will be used to develop an economic analysis of the IPM approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for rice mills.
Studies with the pyrethrin cyfluthrin showed that flour and food residues accelerated degradation of the insecticide, as the food contaminants absorbed residues from a treated surface. Sealing the concrete did not affect residual persistence. Red flour beetle population development was assessed on rice flour and brown rice at 70, 80, and 90°F. There was little population development at 70°F, but populations developed rapidly on brown rice and rice flour at 80 and 90°F. The time required for neonate red flour beetle to develop to the adult stage was determined on five different rice fractions: rice flour, brown rice, rice bran, milled whole kernels and milled broken kernels; at those same temperatures. It took longer for the beetles to develop on rice flour compared to the other fractions, especially at 70°F. Colonization by stored-product insects of spillage accumulations outside of rice mills was evaluated at two rice mill locations. A diverse community of species was found to exploit these accumulations, including the lesser grain borer, a major pest of stored rice.
Monitoring Activities include phone calls, conference calls, and email communications.