2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Determine host susceptibility, seasonal phenology, feeding injury, and interactions with plant pathogenic organisms of BMSB in ornamental crops.
2. Develop outreach and educational programs to deliver research results and management recommendations to stakeholders
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Beginning in early April at the time BMSB exit hibernacula, bi-weekly surveys will begin at each nursery. We will observe twenty randomly selected specimens of all cultivars on site and record the presence or absence of BMSB. Using timed visual counts (Nielson and Hamilton 2009) the location and number of BMSB eggs, nymphs, and adults on leaves, flowers, fruit, or bark will be recorded. The volume of foliage searched will be measured and used to standardize estimate densities of BMSB. Counts of BMSB from the soil to the first scaffold branches will be used to estimate abundance of bark-feeding adults and nymphs (Raupp et al. in prep.). In addition to phenology of BMSB, plant phenology will be recorded. Degree-day accumulations will be measured in each nursery. Injury will be classified as direct (discoloration, deformation, leaf abscission, wounds to bark, changes in growth) or indirect (incidence of cankers, leaf spots, other diseases) and recorded. A subset of plants will be caged to exclude BMSB and used as controls to quantify BMSB injury.
This research was conducted in support of NP304 objective 2B of the parent project. The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive pest of fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and field crops. It is causing significant economic damage in the eastern U.S. and has been shown up more frequently in the western states in homes and crop field. Both the adults and immature stages will feed on fruit, and damage ornamental plants by stripping the bark or damaging the main shoot.
While the stink bug has been found in Oregon, the impacts are not clear with lower populations. A team effort is underway to monitor this insect in a variety of crops important to the agricultural industries in Oregon: grapes, hazelnuts, cherries, and vegetables. Our lab surveyed commercial nurseries with pheromone traps and has found little to no stink bugs this year and the past two years.
The development of the stink bug is also being monitored in field cages with common ornamental nursery plants. This will determine the number of generations the stink bug has in the Mid-Willamette Valley of Oregon, and inform growers the times of the year when problems may be expected. The first eggs were laid June 3rd with hatching starting on June 10th. As of July 23, fourth and fifth instar nymphs are present.
Natural enemies are also being surveyed to understand which naturally occurring species are potential biological control agents, and what hosts they tend to visit. Sentinel frozen BMSB eggs were placed out in Cherry laurel, English holly, Oregon grape and Red maple and retrieved to check for parasitism.