2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Cool season grain legumes including pea (Pisum sativum), lentil (Lens culinaris) and chickpea (Cicer arientium) are integral components of cereal-based cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest and North Central US, including MT and ND. In the US in 2010, peas were produced on over 756,000 acres with a crop value estimated at $121,828,000; lentils were produced on over 658,000 acres with a crop value estimated at $209,953,000; and chickpeas were produced on over 146,000 acres with a crop value estimated at $50,524,000 (National Agricultural Statistical Services, 2010 Crop Production Data). The cool season food legume industry requires varieties that are high yielding, disease resistant and have other desirable characteristics needed for specific market classes. Improving yield and stability of yield of the cool season food legumes requires that breeders consider a trait portfolio that includes resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, plant architecture, agronomic characteristics and market characters. The objectives of this study are to 1)Develop improved varieties of spring and autumn sown peas and lentils with superior yield, plant architecture, food quality and processing characteristics;.
2)Screen breeding lines for resistance to soilborne pathogens (Aphanomyces euteiches, Pythium spp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia spp.); foliar fungal pathogens (powdery mildew) and viral diseases (Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus Pea Enation Mosaic Virus and Pea Seed-borne Mosaic Virus) under greenhouse and/or field conditions. ;.
3)Establish observation nurseries, preliminary and advanced yield trials in WA and ID;.
4)Evaluate selected breeding lines for end product utilization characteristics.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Crosses of spring- and autumn-sown legumes will be made in the greenhouse during the Autumn and Winter Cycles and in the field during the summer. Parental lines will be selected based on performance in yield trials, in screening nurseries and on pedigree. The primary objectives will be tolerance to soilborne pathogens, resistance to foliar fungal pathogens, resistance to viruses, increased yield, improved agronomic characteristics (i.e. standability, maturity, plant architecture, reduced pod shatter and pod drop) and improved quality characteristics (seed shape, size and color, cooking time, etc).
Segregating families and breeding lines will be screened for tolerance to Aphanomcyes root rot, Fusarium root rot, Fusarium wilt (Races 1 and.
2)and other soilborne diseases in root rot disease nurseries. Plant materials will be scored at full bloom and flat pod stages for disease reaction using a rating scale of 1(no symptoms) to 5 (dead plant). Segregating families and breeding lines will also be tested for resistance to PEMV and PSbMV at Oregon State University. Breeding lines with desirable disease resistance and other agronomic traits will be selected.
Advanced yield trials will be conducted at four locations in Washington and Idaho to identify high yielding breeding lines with desirable agronomic traits including standability, early maturity, seed color and seed size and shape. Up to 20 advanced breeding lines and two to three appropriate checks in each market class will be sown in replicated plots at each location.
Approximately 25 additional advanced breeding lines of each market class will be evaluated for the first time in replicated plots in a preliminary yield trial conducted at the Spillman Farm. A single plot each of approximately 500 breeding lines of each species will also be evaluated in a preliminary screening nursery at Spillman Farm. Based on the results of yield trials, disease screening and quality evaluations, selections that have superior performance compared to standard varieties will be considered for release.
Advanced breeding lines will be evaluated for color and cooking qualities using protocols developed at ICARDA. Seed weight before and after soaking, percentage water uptake, cooking times, and appearance before and after cooking will be determined for all advanced breeding lines.
This research relates to objective 1 of the associated inhouse project “Develop and release new varieties and germplasm of peas, lentils, and chickpea that have higher seed mineral concentrations; improved host-plant resistance to Aphanomyces root rot, Sclerotinia wilt and Ascochyta blight; and higher yields than existing commercial varieties”.
In 2013, advanced yield trials for peas, lentils, and chickpeas were planted at several locations in Washington and Idaho. Breeding lines, commercial varieties, and populations are being evaluated in field nurseries for reaction to several diseases including Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, and Aphanomyces root rot. Chickpea populations are being examined with DNA markers in the laboratory and evaluated in the field for important traits including disease resistance, maturity, yield, and seed size.