2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The primary objective of this proposal is to develop improved chickpea varieties. Sub-objectives include making crosses between elite chickpea breeding lines and screening breeding materials for disease resistance, seed protein content and seed mineral concentration.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Cross will be made in the greenhouse and the field between elite chickpea lines and varieties. Parental lines will be selected based on performance in preliminary and advanced yield trials for a range of agronomic traits including seed size and color, yield, and early maturity. Hybrids are increased in the greenhouse and subjected to multiple cycles of self pollination to produce segregating bulk populations. Segregating bulk populations (F3-F6) will be grown in the field and selected for seed type (size, shape and color), height and lodging tolerance, and early maturity. Preliminary selections will be evaluated in the field at a single location. Advanced selections will be evaluated in yield trials conducted at multiple locations. Breeder seed will be produced from two elite breeding lines for subsequent varietal releases. Single plant selections, preliminary breeding lines and advanced breeding lines will be screened for resistance to Ascochyta blight. Preliminary and advanced breeding lines will be screened for seed protein content and seed mineral concentration.
Twenty five chickpea breeding lines and check varieties were evaluated in three locations in Washington and Idaho for yield and the concentrations in seed of 14 different minerals. Six breeding lines have been identified that have exceeded the yield of the check variety Dwelley by more than 15% over two cropping years. Sources of early maturity were also identified and have been used as parents in crosses made to develop varieties that mature earlier than current varieties.
Progress relates to objective 1: Identify and select improved germplasm and cultivars for pea, lentil, and chickpea through systematic evaluation under biotic and abiotic stress conditions to identify tolerant or resistant types for release to stakeholders. Sub-objective 1A: Develop pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars with broad adaptation to diverse production environments and with resistance to fungal and viral pathogen; Sub-objective 1B: Characterize available germplasm for novel quality traits for food and feed uses. It also relates to objective 2: Identify genetic factors through classical breeding methods contributing to cold tolerance and winter hardiness in pea and lentil germplasm. Sub-objective 2A: Develop winter-hardy cultivars of pea and lentil with edible quality traits that are adapted to direct seeding. As a result of this project, we are continuing to make progress in understanding how to best develop agronomically superior cultivars of peas and lentils with enhanced nutritional components. A publication in Genes and Genomics was published as a result of collaboration (see parent project). The results of this project relate to Subobjective 1A (Develop pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars with broad adaptation to diverse production environments and with resistance to fungal and viral pathogens) of the in-house associated project.
ARS PI monitoring activities to evaluate research progress included: phone
calls/conference calls, on-site Cooperator/ARS meetings, email communications, discussions at professional conferences/meetings, discussions at annual workshops/conferences, review of Accomplishment Report.