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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: Approaches to Minimize the Occurrence of Fescue Toxicosis in Livestock

Location: Forage-Animal Production Research

2012 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Experiment 1: A grazing experiment will determine the effects that steroidal implants and rough hair coats retained in the summer months have on weight gain and physiology of steers on toxic tall fescue pasture in the late spring and early summer. Experiment 2: A grazing experiment will evaluate performance and physiology of yearling steers grazing a novel endophyte infected tall fescue developed for the upper transition zone (KYFA9301 tall fescue inserted with the AR584 novel endophyte).


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Experiment 1: A grazing experiment will be conducted with 60 steers that are assigned to six, 3.0-ha pastures of toxic tall fescue. Pastures will be assigned either with or without daily feeding of soybean hull pellets (2.3 kg/steer). Five steers will be implanted with a progesterone-estradiol ear implant and the other steers will not be implanted. Grazing and data collection will be conducted from late April until middle July for a two year duration. Average daily gain, rectal temperature, serum prolactin, and forage mass and ergovaline concentrations are response measures to be taken. Experiment 2: A grazing evaluation will be conducted with four TF entries: a TF genetic line (KAFA9301) with or without insertion of the AR584 NE, MaxQ (‘Jessup’ TF inserted with the AR584 endophyte), and ‘KY-31’ infected with the TE. The four TF entries were no-till planted in the fall of 2006 in 1-ha pastures. Entries were assigned to pastures in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The grazing experiment will be conducted for a 3-year duration, with grazing being initiated each year in early April and terminated following 84 days of grazing. Average daily weight gain, rectal temperature, sweating rate, serum prolactin, pasture carrying capacity, forage mass and nutritive values are the response measures to be taken.


3.Progress Report:

A grazing experiment was conducted in the spring of 2011 and 2012 to evaluate interactions between chemical suppression of seed head emergence of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and grazing intensity. Tall fescue, the predominant forage grass utilized in the southeastern USA, is infected by a fungal endophyte that produces toxic ergot alkaloids. These alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis in cattle that annually costs the U.S. beef industry approximately 1 billion dollars. Thus far, data collected in the grazing experiment has shown increased weight gains and a mitigation of fescue toxicosis for steers grazing seed head suppressed fescue and the effects were consistent for light and moderate grazing intensities. This research is demonstrating that the positive benefits of controlling emergence of the highly toxic seed heads in fescue pastures are also realized with stocking rates that are representative of those used by cattlemen. A second experiment is being conducted with 24 steers from this experiment that will be placed on non-toxic diets in pens. The objective of this experiment is to determine differences in vasculature blood flows and alkaloid concentrations in subcutaneous fat between steers grazed on fescue treated to suppress seed head emergence and those grazed on untreated pastures. This agreement has been valuable to meeting the objective of improved animal and forage productivity of forage-based systems through optimization of grazing.


Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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