2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
To identify and quantify vitamin K and related compounds in representative samples of foods and dietary supplements to improve and expand analyses to the USDA Nutrient Databases.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) is responsible for developing and disseminating authoritative composition database on foods and dietary supplements in the U.S. diet. NDL has developed a Key Foods approach to help establish priorities for foods to be analyzed. Key Foods are those identified as contributing up to 75% of any one nutrient of public health significance. Key Foods form the core of foods to be analyzed supplemented by other foods deemed of particular interest due to their frequent use as ingredients or content of nutrients of emerging interest. Sampling plans will be developed for each type of food sampled, to assure a representative sampling of the food supply. Dietary supplements for analysis are identified using data from NHANES and market share data from industry sources. Samples of foods or dietary supplements will be delivered to the cooperator for analysis. In a limited number of cases the cooperator may need to develop matrix specific methods for handling and analyzing food or dietary supplement samples and preparing aliquots for shipment to other researchers for analysis of additional components. The cooperator will also offer expertise in interpretation of results of the analyses of vitamin K and related components.
During 2012 as part of an ongoing project to expand the database on the vitamin K content of foods, approximately 238 food and ingredient samples, representing 98 food items, were analyzed for two forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone, the primary dietary source of vitamin K in the U.S., and its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone (dK). In addition, menaquinone, found only in animal products, was also analyzed in a few foods. Foods analyzed include turkey (dark and white meat), blueberry muffins, baked beans, barbecue sauce, frozen lasagna, foods from family style restaurants, fast foods, various pork sausages, pretzels, buttermilk biscuits, and chocolate chip cookies. The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) staff continued to add new vitamin K values to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), as well as updating existing data. Of the 30 new values added to SR25, 8 were analytical values. The balance were values calculated from analytical values obtained in prior years of this project. Of the 60 changed values in SR25, 20 were based on analytical data from FY2012. In addition 10 menaquinone values and 12 dK values were added to SR25. Results were delayed due to equipment problems encountered by the cooperator and will be included in SR26.