2012 Annual Report
2. Determine relevant health, nutritional, and clinical outcomes in humans in response to food production-induced variability in the chemical/nutritional/ bioactive composition of foods.
3. Utilize appropriate experimental models to examine specific physiologic/ biochemical responses in the consumer that may be altered by food production-induced variability in food composition; determine genomic and metabolomic profiles that may help define why some individuals respond whereas others do not.
Understanding and developing solutions to the above issues requires an integrated knowledge of, and close alliance between the disciplines of human nutrition and production agriculture. Appropriately designed human studies of diet and health reinforced by studies in animals and cell systems are needed to identify agricultural production practices that truly alter the nutrient value of foods. This program is designed to foster the cooperation and interdisciplinary approaches needed to address such concerns.
Examples of possible questions to be addressed include (but are not limited to): Do animal selection-induced changes in fat composition of beef affect blood lipids in humans? What is the effect of climate and cultivar-induced changes in anthocyanin profiles of blueberries on measures of cognition in humans? Are there nutrient gene interactions resulting from blackberry consumption? What is the effect of plant selection-induced changes in glucosinolate composition of crucifers on activation of nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes? Do diet-induced changes in omega 3: omega 6 ratios in farmed salmon affect pro- or anti-aggregatory prostaglandin production?
We investigated the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells with low and high concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic extracts. We found that these extracts induced a non-linear response in cell proliferation with lower proliferation observed at higher concentrations, without differences in cell death (apoptosis). These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with concentration-specific alterations induced by blueberry polyphenols upon cell growth and proliferation.