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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Testing of Advanced Potato Germplasm for Biotic and Abiotic Resistances, Yield and Profitability Components

Location: Vegetable and Forage Crops Production Research

2012 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Determine the value of advanced potato germplasm with particular attention to disease, pest, and stress resistance, yield, quality characteristics, and profitability parameters. Define cultural conditions which will optimize yield and quality of each clone.


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
New germplasm arising out of Federal and State breeding programs will be propagated to produce relatively disease-free seed. Clones will be grown under several climatic conditions, in multiple locations, under a multitude of cultural practice variables, and under planned disease, pest, and stress exposures. Evaluations will include expressions of resistance, yield, quality (external and internal), processabililty, storability, phytonutrient content and overall assessment of profitability under existing pricing and contracts for raw product in the fresh and processed sectors. Attention will be placed on developing an array of potential cultivars with candidates for every market type on a national and international basis. Larger scale commercial trials of more promising clones will be organized with industry representatives.


3.Progress Report:
In 2011, three new potato varieties were released from the Idaho breeding program in collaboration with the Tri-State program, including Teton Russet (A0008-1TE), Huckleberry Gold (A99326-1PY) and Palisade Russet (A97066-42LB).

Teton Russet is a dual purpose cultivar with maturity similar to Russet Norkotah. Russet Norkotah, the predominant variety used for baked potatoes, is susceptible to Potato Virus Y (PVY). Because of this, it is difficult for seed growers to certify their R. Norkotah and difficult for commercial growers to find certified seed. Moreover, R. Norkotah’s internal color tends to change into an unappetizing brownish-gray following four or more months of storage. Teton Russet has excellent yield and quality for both fresh and process markets and is less susceptible to PVY than R. Norkotah. Multiple years of research at Washington State University have demonstrated that Teton Russet typically produces 25% more out-of-field revenue for growers than R. Norkotah due to a higher pack-out and fresh market size profile. Moreover, a formal taste and sensory panel overseen by the Washington State University Food Lab rated Teton Russet baked potatoes best in flavor, aroma, texture, and overall acceptance compared to ten other varieties including R. Norkotah and R. Burbank. According to NASS 2011, R. Norkotah is grown on 14% of Washington acreage and 13% of all fall US acreage, or 22,400- and 124,449,000-acres, respectively. Conservatively, it accounts for approximately $161.3 million and $670 million of gross farm-gate value for Washington, and the US, respectively. If Teton Russet replaced only half of acreage, it would bring Washington, and US growers an extra $40 million and $168 million, respectively. It has excellent culinary qualities that are comparable to Russet Burbank and Classic Russet and shows good potential for the early fresh market, with potential as a replacement for Russet Norkotah. Industry evaluations of processing quality for Teton Russet show that it has excellent potential for producing premium quality fries and has relatively low concentrations of asparagine, which is a key component in acrylamide formation. Huckleberry Gold is a medium-early maturing fresh variety with purple skin and yellow flesh and medium yield potential. AmaRosa, and Purple Pelisse, are red fleshed and purple fleshed varieties with high antioxidant values. Palisade Russet is a late season russet notable for having resistance to foliar and tuber late blight and resistance to Verticillium wilt, black dot, and pink rot, and moderate resistance to tuber net necrosis, potato virus Y (PVY), and early blight. The disease resistances of Palisade Russet also make it a good candidate for organic production, or for use by growers seeking reduced pesticide inputs. It also may have potential as a processing cultivar in areas with inherently low specific gravities. Molecular markers have been developed for major potato diseases and pests. We are now using molecular makers for PVY, PVX, late blight (Rb gene), Colombia root-knot nematodes, and pale cyst nematode.


4.Accomplishments
1. Russet Norkotah, the predominant variety used for baked potatoes, is susceptible to Potato Virus Y (PVY). Because of this, it is difficult for seed growers to certify their R. Norkotah and difficult for commercial growers to find certified seed. Moreover, R. Norkotah’s internal color tends to change into an unappetizing brownish-gray following four or more months of storage. A new release out of University of Idaho, USDA-ARS, and the Tri-State Program, Teton Russet, has excellent yield and quality for both fresh and process markets and is less susceptible to PVY than R. Norkotah. Multiple years of research at Washington State University have demonstrated that Teton Russet typically produces 25% more out-of-field revenue for growers than R. Norkotah due to a higher pack-out and fresh market size profile. If Teton Russet replaced only half of acreage, it would bring Washington State and US growers an extra $40 million and $168 million, respectively.

2. Tri-State potato varieties perform better than Russet Burbank under severe drough. Drought stress often causes losses in potatoes grown under rain-fed and irrigated conditions when water use exceeds and depletes soil supply. Studies designed to evaluate the responses of Tri-State releases to reduced amounts of irrigation were conducted at Aberdeen in 2010-2011. All Tri-State varieties produced higher yields than Russet Burbank (RB) under moderate (75% evapotranspiration) and severe (50% evapotranspiration) drought. Under moderate drought stress, Umatilla, Alpine and Premier Russet produced 26, 19, and 16% higher total yields than RB, respectively, while Premier, Alpine and Clearwater Russet produced 86, 73, and 73% higher US No. 1 yields than RB. Under severe drought, Alpine, Umatilla and Premier produced 45, 36, and 31% higher total yields than RB, respectively, while Alpine and Premier Russet produced 235% and 229% higher US No. 1 yields than RB, respectively. A large number of new Tri-State Releases offer significant yield cushions against uncontrolled water deficit, an important element in sustainable agricultural and a better adaptation to and food security protection against global warming.


Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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