2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Determine the genetics of the high protein and protein quality traits for the G. soja source alone and in combination with a separate source and to generate novel soybean breeding germplasm with higher protein content and quality in combination with lower allergen and lower phytate. This project will determine the genetics and combining ability of protein content and protein quality improvement possible with a novel source of the high protein trait. In addition, the high protein content trait will be combined with the low P34 allergen and low phytate trait and the resulting soybean germplasm will be made available to public soybean breeders. The research will address the question of whether there are a spectrum of alleles present in the high protein donor that can be separated and captured along with reasonable oil content in adapted breeding lines. In addition, the combining ability with an independent source of the high protein trait will be evaluated.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Molecular genetics and plant breeding experiments will be conducted to evaluate the molecular genetics of protein content and quality in the seeds. An established population will be used, so phenotyping and mapping can be completed efficiently. Trait combination will be assisted with developed and new molecular marker assays. Seeds will be phenotyped for their oil and protein contents by NIR or by NMR. Amino acid analyses will be performed in house using an existing method for HPLC or contracted out, depending on preliminary experimental results. DNA will be prepared from each of approximately 300 lines of the population and used for associating the high protein trait with the components of the genome responsible for the trait utilizing the Illumina Golden Gate Array in conjunction with ARS researchers in Beltsville, MD. Yield of selected lines from the mapping population will be analyzed in multiple Missouri field locations. Conventional plant breeding utilizing crossing and selection with existing molecular markers will be used to combine the most promising high protein quantity/quality lines trait lines with the low phytate and low P34 allergen traits.
One objective of this project is the development and analysis of high oleic (HO) acid soybean lines with additional genes that alter the fatty acid profile of the oil for improved functionality. The objective links to the in-house project (to develop the molecular basis for modification of the fatty acid components of soybean oil and anti-nutritional components in soybean meal to use in accelerated breeding programs) by determining what gene combinations are necessary to achieve different fatty acid profiles for more functional soybean oils. Towards this goal, we analyzed the seed fatty acid profiles of field grown soybean lines with different oil quality traits. Because this analysis was not from replicated field trials, we considered it preliminary. A two-location, replicated field trial was planted to evaluate the fatty acid phenotypes from soybeans with the following traits: the HO acid trait alone (three versions, depending on the fatty acid desaturase gene (FAD2-1A) alleles utilized), and the HO acid trait plus low line, plus saturated fatty acids, and plus elevated stearic acid. In addition, new combinations with the alternate HO gene combination were planted without replication to generate materials for replicated trials in 2013, and preliminary analysis of fatty acid profiles this fall.