2011 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Measure and characterize the emission and vertical profile of ozone, particulate matter (PM), selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from dairies in California. .
2)Characterize reactions of select VOCs for the formation of ozone in reaction chambers.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
1) Measurement of the concentration profiles of PM in a commercial dairy - within facility and vertical profile from the downwind locations from the facilities.
2) Measurement of the concentration profiles of greenhouse gases (i.e., CO2, N2O, CH4) and selected VOCs (i.e., volatile fatty acids, alcohols, phenols, etc.) - within facility and vertical profile from the facilities.
a. Canisters/Sorbent tubes – for VOCs
b. Canisters for methane/N2O/CO2
c. Lasers and passive samplers for ammonia
3) Characterization of VOCs sorbed to particulates as a function of particle size.
In 2011, we began the in-life phase of the field intensive sampling program at a medium size dairy (2,000 head) in Hanford, CA, monitoring the emissions of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases using both sorbent tubes and canisters. In the first sampling, done in August 2010, the key sources of VOCs were identified (i.e., silage piles, feedlot surface). Flux chambers had high levels of alcohols, esters, volatile fatty acids, ketones, and carbonyl compounds. A tower was constructed to collect air samples from the exercise area of the dairy. Air samples have shown higher levels of alcohols and carbonyl compounds than from the surrounding area. Samples were collected from the dairy facility in May and August with another sampling planned in January.