Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases
2013 Annual Report
Objective 2: Assess the effectiveness of on-farm interventions (such as passive immunization therapy as a feed supplement) to prevent enteric Toxoplasma infection in swine, consequent foodborne risk, and potential interaction with Salmonella foodborne infections in swine. C.1., PS 1B, and PS 1.D, Section 4.1. Objective 3: Evaluate the impact of anthelminthic and antiprotozoal treatments on parasitic foodborne infections in swine and the potential foodborne risk. Evaluate the impact of anthelminthic and antiprotozoal treatments on the interaction between foodborne pathogen and foodborne parasitic infections, specficially coinfections of Toxoplasma, Trichinella with Salmonaella and Campylobacter in swine, and changes following treatments. C.1., P.S., 1.A, and P.S., 1.D.
Conducted quarterly training program for packer analysts for approved direct detection methods for T. spiralis in pork and horsemeat. Conducted testing of analysts and evaluated test results in consultation with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) to maintain integrity of the analyst training program. These efforts support export marketing efforts as requested by USDA regulatory agencies (Obj.1.2).
Standardized antibody titers in egg yolk preparations for testing HEY therapy in pigs. Determined Toxoplasma-specific isotype concentrations for HEY preparations and prepared dosing regimen for oocyst infected pigs (Obj. 2).
Infected pigs with T. spiralis for analysis of effect of length of treatment with a fixed dose of mebendazole on encysted ML. Mebendazole treatment of pigs with 250mg/kg over 3 days or 5 days reduced numbers of recovered ML and rendered ML non-infective to mice. Mebendazole treatment of pigs with 250mg/kg in a single dose was not effective in reducing ML numbers recovered from pigs or in impacting ML infectivity to mice. These data provide a means to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment on the viability of Trichinella ML in pig tissues and provide a framework for elimination of Trichinella risk in pigs raised in uncontrolled management systems (Obj. 3.1).
Initiated NAHMS swine serological survey for Trichinella and Toxoplasma in collaboration with APHIS-CEAH. This survey will determine the seroprevalence of Trichinella and Toxoplasma in the national swine herd, and provide data on farm management practices that impact pathogen prevalence (Obj. 2).
Initiated National Retail Meat Survey for Toxoplasma in organic pork and American lamb. The survey will identify the risk of Toxoplasma infection to consumers from these meat products using samples collected from 25 MSAs nationwide. These data will be used to discern consumer risk from meat products from animals raised in uncontrolled management systems (Obj. 3.2).
Schares, G., Langenmayer, M., Scharr, J., Minke, L., Maksimov, P., Maksimov, A., Schares, S., Barwald, A., Basso, W., Dubey, J.P., Conrath, F., Gollnick, N. 2013. Novel tools for the diagnosis and differentiation of acute and chronic bovine besnoitiosis. International Journal for Parasitology. 43:143-154.
El-Behairy, A., Choudhary, S., Ferreira, L., Kwok, O., Hilali, M., Su, C., Dubey, J.P. 2013. Genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates from stray dogs from Giza, Egypt. Veterinary Parasitology. 193:25-29.
Galizi, R., Spano, F., Giubilei, M., Capuccini, B., Magini, A., Urbanelli, L., Ogawa, T., Dubey, J.P., Spaccapelo, R., Emiliani, C., Cristina, M. 2013. Evidence of tRNA cleavage in apicomplexan parasites: half-tRNAs as new potential regulatory molecules of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 188:99-108.
Beltrame, M., Pena, H., Ton, N., Lino, A., Gennari, S., Dubey, J.P., Pereira, F. 2012. Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens from Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 188:255-230. Buskhin, G., Dubey, J.P., Miska, K.B., Bullitt, E., Costello, C.E., Robbins, P.W., Samuelson, J. 2012. Beta-1,3-glucan1,3-glucan, a druggable target, forms a trabecular scaffold in the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria. mBio. 3(5):e00258-12.
Dubey, J.P., Lago, E., Gennari, S., Su, C., Jones, J. 2012. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: High prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology. Parasitology. 139:1375-1424. Gutierrez-Esposito, D., Ortega-Mora, L., Gajadhar, A., Garcia-Lunar, P., Dubey, J.P., Alvarez-Garcia, G. 2012. Serological evidence of besnoitiosis in Canadian wild ruminants and strong cross-reaction between Besnoitia besnoiti and B. tarandi species. Veterinary Parasitology. 190:19-28.
Alvardo-Esquivel, C., Rodriguez-Pena, S., Villena, I., Dubey, J.P. 2012. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology. 98:944-945.
Bossart, G., Mignucci-Giannoni, A., Rivera-Guzman, A., Jimenez-Marrero, N., Camus, A., Bonde, R., Dubey, J.P., Reif, J. 2012. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 101:139-144.
Fomovska, A., Wood, R., Mui, E., Welsh, W., Dubey, J.P., Ferreira, L.R., Hickman, M., Lee, P., Leed, S., Auschwitz, J., Sommerville, C., Woods, S., Roberts, C., Mcleod, R. 2012. Salicylanilide inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 55:8375-8391.
Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Estrada-Malacon, M.A., Reyes-Hernandez, S.O., Perez-Ramirez, J.A., Trujillo-Lopez, J.L., Villena, I., Dubey, J.P. 2012. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico. Veterinary Parasitology. 98:1248-1250.
Palic, J., Parker, V.J., Fales-Williams, A.J., Jarvinen, J.A., Dubey, J.P. 2012. What is your diagnosis? Duodenal brush preparation from a dog. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 41:431-432.
Dubey, J.P., Darrington, C., Tiao, N., Ferreira, L., Choudhary, S., Molla, B., Saville, W., Tilahun, G., Kwok, O.C., Gebreyes, W. 2013. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitology. 99:56-58.
Dubey, J.P., Prowell, M. 2013. Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical Toxoplasmosis in a naturally-infected cat. Journal of Parasitology. 99:158-160.
Rosypal, A.C., Bowman, S.S., Epps, S.A., El Behairy, A.M., Hillali, M., Dubey, J.P. 2013. Serological survey of dogs from Egypt for antibodies to Leishmania spp.. Journal of Parasitology. 99:170-171.
Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Estrada-Malacon, M., Reyes-Hernandez, S., Perez-Ramirez, J., Trujillo-Lopez, J., Villena, I., Dubey, J.P. 2013. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Domestic Sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology. 99:151-152.
Tiao, N., Darrington, C.L., Molla, B., Saville, W.A., Tilahun, G., Kwok, O.C., Gebreyes, W.A., Lappin, M.R., Jones, J.L., Dubey, J.P. 2013. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia. Epidemiology and Infection. 141:1029-1033.
Brenner, E.C., Chomel, B.B., Singhasivanon, O., Namekata, D.Y., Kasten, R.W., Kass, P.H., Cortes-Vecino, J., Gennari, S.M., Rajapakse, R., Huong, L., Dubey, J.P. 2013. Bartonella infection of stray dogs from the Tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Epidemiology and Infection. 141:54-61. Walzer, K.A., Dam, R.A., Herrmann, D.C., Schares, G., Dubey, J.P., Boyle, J.P. 2013. Functional conservation of Toxoplasma gondii virulence genes in its avirulent relative, Hammondia hammondi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110:7446-7451.
Dubey, J.P., Choudhary, S., Kwok, O.C., Ferreira, L., Oliveira, S., Verma, S., Marks, D., Perdersen, K., Mickley, R., Randall, A., Arsone, D., Su, C. 2013. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from mute swan (Cygnus olor) from the USA. Veterinary Parasitology. 195:42-46.
Possenti, A., Fratini, F., Pizzi, E., Fantozzi, L., Pozio, E., Dubey, J.P., Ponzi, M., Spano, F. 2013. Global proteomic analysis of the oocyst/sporozoite of Toxoplasma gondii reveals commitment to a host-independent lifestyle. Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics. 14:183.
Youn, Z., Luo, S., Dubey, J.P., Zhou, D., Zhu, Y., He, Y., He, X., Zhang, X., Zhu, X. 2013. Serological Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 13:422-424.
Guy, E., Hill, D.E., Dubey, J.P. 2012. Toxoplasma gondii. In: Robertson, L.J., Smith, H.V., editors. Food Borne Protozoan Parasites. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers. p. 167-188.
Jones, J.L., Dubey, J.P. 2012. Foodborne Toxoplasmosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 55(6):845-851. Edwards, J.F., Dubey, J.P. 2013. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe. Veterinary Parasitology. 192:129-136.
Dubey, J.P., Simon, A., Poulin, B., Rousseau, A.N., Ogden, N.H. 2013. Toxoplasmosis in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in Québec, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 49(1):39-48.
Costa, G., Marvulo, M., Silva, J., Santana, S., Magalhaes, F., Lima Filho, C., Ribeiro, V., Alves, L., Mota, R., Dubey, J.P., Silva, J. 2012. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the Fernando De Noronha, Brazil. Journal of Parasitology. 98:679-680. Sukhumavasi, W., Bellosa, M.L., Lucio-Forster, A., Liotta, J., Lee, A., Pornmingmas, P., Chungpivat, S., Mohammed, H.O., Lorentzen, L., Dubey, J.P., Bowman, D.D. 2012. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand. Veterinary Parasitology. 188:25-30.
Hill, D.E., Dubey, J.P. 2013. Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in farm animals in the U.S. International Journal for Parasitology. 43:107-113.