Project Number: 5428-21000-015-09
Start Date: Apr 01, 2011
End Date: Mar 31, 2016
Work will be performed during early spring in large (>100 acre) trial and commercial almond orchards in California over five years. In the first three years, research will be done in trial orchards, which will be pollinated with relatively small numbers of Osmia lignaria (8,000-20,000 per orchard) along with the standard number of honey bees (two hives per acre). In these orchards, cavities for use as O. lignaria nests will be deployed at various densities and patterns. Also, O. lignaria males and females will be released according to different management practices. Analyses of nest occupancy by bees will determine if placement of release location and availability of nests in different densities and locations influence the distribution and retention of bees in the orchards. Analyses of offspring size, number of offspring, and offspring sex ratio will be used to measure reproductive success under the various treatments. Data will be collected on the distribution of bees as indicated by occupied nests and also the yield of nuts in relationship to where bees nested throughout the orchards. Analyses will reveal effects of the distribution of nesting bees on nut yield. In years 4&5, trial orchards will be exclusively pollinated by O. lignaria and the nest distribution experiment replicated. In addition, techniques based on previous years’ observations will be applied to counteract the tendency of the bees to nest preferentially in some areas and the consequent irregularity in pollination and hence nut yield.