Location: Egg Safety and Quality
2012 Annual Report
Impact of sustainable grazing in organic egg production on egg and environmental microbiology. Organic laying hens were split into two grazing regimens: dedicated pasture or behind an organic dairy herd. Aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold populations are enumerated. The incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria are also monitored. This study will conclude FY13.
Frequency and magnitude of internal organ colonization following exposure of laying hens to different oral doses of Salmonella Enteritidis. Determined exposing laying hens to quantitatively different oral doses of S. Enteritidis resulted in significant differences in both the initial post-inoculation frequency of fecal shedding and the duration of this shedding over the course of the experiment.
Development of a disease-containment facility for studying the effects of housing systems on Salmonella Enteritidis infections in egg-laying hens. A facility containing single-bird research cages was redesigned and renovated by the installation of conventional multiple-bird laying cages and enriched multiple-bird cages (furnished with perches and enclosed nesting areas; incorporating more floor space per hen), providing a more accurate simulation of commercially relevant housing systems.
Environmental Salmonella status of small backyard laying flocks in Delaware. A collaborative study with Delaware State University was initiated to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in ranging, small flock egg production in Delaware throughout the year. Grass samples are sent to ARS for Salmonella assessment. This study will conclude FY13.
Comparing egg quality from hens housed in various commercial production systems. The first production flock comparing conventional and enriched cage, as well as aviary systems in commercial egg production was completed. Egg production for the second flock has begun. Monthly, eggs are monitored for shell and egg component physical quality attributes. Quarterly, a sample of eggs is washed and refrigerated to determine the rate of egg quality decline over 12 weeks.
Effect of alternative in-shell pasteurization methods on egg quality. Egg quality analyses were conducted to supplement alternative egg pasteurization method development by scientists at the Eastern Regional Research Center. Control and experimentally pasteurized eggs were shipped to the laboratory for physical quality determinations.
Automatic adjusting LED lighting for egg microcrack detection. Research was expanded to develop automatically adjusting LED lighting for previously developed modified pressure egg microcrack detection technology. Research will continue to determine the appropriate lighting parameters and programming of software for integrated adjustments.
Gast, R.K., Guraya, R., Holt, P.S. 2011. Frequency and persistence of fecal shedding following exposure of laying hens to different oral doses of Salmonella enteritidi. International Journal of Poultry Science. 10:750-756.
Gast, R.K., Guraya, R., Guard, J.Y., Holt, P.S. 2010. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures. Journal of Food Protection. 73:1902-1906.
Gast, R.K., Guraya, R., Guard, J.Y., Holt, P.S. 2011. The relationship between the numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, or Salmonella Hadar colonizing reproductive tissues of experimentally infected laying hens and deposition inside eggs. Avian Diseases. 55:243-247.
Yoon, S.C., Lawrence, K.C., Jones, D.R., Heitschmidt, G.W. 2012. Improved modified pressure imaging and software for egg micro-crack detection and egg quality grading. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 28(2):283-293.
Lawrence, K.C., Jones, D.R., Yoon, S.C., Heitschmidt, G.W., Anderson, K.E. 2011. Improved hairline crack detector and poor shell-quality eggs. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 28(1):153-158.
Chmielewski, R.A., Day, J.M., Spatz, S.J., Yu, Q., Gast, R.K., Zsak, L., Swayne, D.E. 2011. Thermal inactivation of avian viral and bacterial pathogens in an effluent treatment system within a biosafety level 2 and 3 enhanced facility. Applied Biosafety. 16(4):206-217.
Jones, D.R., Anderson, K.E., Guard, J.Y. 2012. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production. Poultry Science. 91:1195-1202.
Anderson, K.E., Jones, D.R. 2012. Effect of genetic selection on growth parameters and tonic immobility in Leghorn pullets. Poultry Science. 91:765-770.
Yoon, S.C., Lawrence, K.C., Jones, D.R., Heitschmidt, G.W., Park, B. 2012. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety. 5(5):172-184.