2012 Annual Report
1)the orchard emits an odor profile in the phenological development period between May and September that is more attractive than Blend F; or,.
2)the orchard emits an odor profile in September that enhances the attractiveness of Blend F. Overall, Blend F attracted significantly (defined as P < 0.05) more total moths, e.g. male and female A. transitella combined (one-way ANOVA, F = 3.79, df: 4,95, and P = 0.007, followed by SNK method P < 0.05), than Blend D (P = 0.004), Blend E (P = 0.009), and almond meal (P = 0.016). Analysis of female A. transitella captures demonstrated no significant differences between the different lure treatments due to the number of down dates (zero captures) of activity, though the probability P = 0.085 value (F = 2.12, df: 4,95) was close to declaring significantly greater female captures with Blend F. It should be noted that for Blend F a greater number of female moths were captured than the other Blends or almond meal, just not statistically. Analysis of male A. transitella captures demonstrated significantly different and greater attraction and captures of males with Blend F over the other Blends and almond meal lures, excluding virgin-baited traps (F = 4.75, df: 4,95, and P = 0.0027); Blend D (P < 0.001), Blend E (P = 0.003), and almond meal (P = 0.005). The results and statistical analysis for A. transitella captures in almonds are discussed in the forthcoming paper (Beck et al. 2011c). The results for A. transitella capture in pistachio orchards were not as large in captured numbers or as consistent in moth captures as in almonds and require further optimization. Comparison of the week to week trials for Blend F showed no activity from May to early July and sporadic activity in July, August, and early September. Blend F showed increased attractiveness toward female A. transitella in mid- to late September. However, Blend F overall attracted significantly higher total number of A. transitella moths compared to Blend D, Blend E, and more importantly almond meal. At this time optimization of Blend F is required before further speculation regarding its value for monitoring A. transitella in pistachios is considered. However, the positive results of Blend F provide the best efforts heretofore regarding a kairomonal-based blend for attraction of A. transitella.
This project has made considerable progress in objective 1 of the parent project, by developing a lure for NOW to reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination of pistachios.