2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The goal of this study is to develop and characterize nutrient-dense, whole grain rich, fiber rich, allergen-free and gluten-free cakes and/or cookies with similar consumer acceptance and quality to those prepared with recognized allergens such as dairy, eggs, and wheat flour.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
1. To naturally fortify the whole grains and legumes used in the formulation via controlled sprouting.
2. To determine optimum sprouting conditions to maximize nutrients and minimize anti-nutrients.
3. To lyophilize (freeze-dry) and mill optimized germinates into flours for incorporation in formulations.
4. To develop a whole-grain rich, fiber-rich, allergen-free and gluten-free formula for cakes and cookies free from dairy, eggs, wheat and including alternative whole grain, fiber-rich and gluten-free oat, chickpea and lentil flours.
5. To utilize response surface methodology (RSM) in the development and optimization of formulas. This statistical technique has been successfully applied in the development and optimization of cereal products. It allows the evaluation of the relative contribution of predictor variables to product characteristics and the determination of optimum ingredient levels. This approach has also been used by other researchers in gluten-free research.
6. To evaluate products subjectively using consumer acceptance methods such as the 9-point hedonic scale, which are widely used in sensory evaluation of cereal and legume-based products.
7. To evaluate products objectively using methods such as weight, texture, color, water activity, and microstructure determinations of the complex matrix to establish interactions between formula components such as protein and starches via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods.
8. To determine optimum levels of independent variables from the RSM surfaces, scale-up allergen-free, gluten-free products at a pilot plant facility to mimic a real life situation in industry and determine sensory and objective evaluation on those products.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient and nutrient dense South American crop has a vast potential in gluten-free foods. The effects of roasting whole quinoa seeds at 177°C for 15, 30 and 45 minutes on their pasting properties were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Pasting temperature was similar among all treatments (50.1°C). Peak viscosity, an indicator of water binding capacity, gel strength and elasticity increased for roasted quinoa samples from 9,328 to 15,585 cP. Overall, 45 minutes roasting time showed promise in the formulation of healthy gluten-free baked goods with quinoa, which has application for Celiacs, individuals diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, or autism.