2012 Annual Report
2. Develop molecular tools of functional genomics for use in systematics and in defining secondary metabolites and products of insect pathogenic fungi that affect biological control potential.
3. Discover natural fungal metabolites and products to evaluate their roles in the survival, development, virulence, and pathogenicity of fungal biological control agents.
4. Identify and characterize novel lead chemistries for the development of new fungal metabolite-based pesticides for agricultural applications.
Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) with EMBRAPA. MTAs to cover exchanges of germplasm between the ARSEF collection and its Brazilian counterpart, the entomopathogenic fungal collection at Cenargen (Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology; Brasilia, BR) are in final stages of preparation for signatures.
Identification of Multiple Hydrophobin Genes and their Expression during Fungal Development. At least one strain of the broad host range insect pathogen Metarhizium brunneum has been commercially developed, so it is important to evaluate components related to development and pathogenicity for further improvements. Hydrophobins are a group of small peptides that are important for fungal growth and development. ARS researchers in Ithaca, NY, together with Cornell University researchers, identified and characterized three different hydrophobin genes, and produced mutants in which each gene had been deleted. These mutants showed alterations in expression patterns during development, and in pigmentation, spore production, morphology, and hydrophobicity, as well as a marked delay in virulence against two different insects. The studies showed that that these three hydrophobins have distinct, but compensating, roles in providing functionality for their producing organism, and that their level of expression in important in enhancing virulence against insects.
Sanchez, S., Humber, R.A., Freitas, A., Pinheiro, A. 2011. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Entomotropica. 25(2):63-68.
Donzelli, B., Krasnoff, S., Sun-Moon, Y., Churchill, A., Gibson, D.M. 2012. Genetic basis of destruxin production in the entomopathogen Metarhizium robertsii. Current Genetics. 58:105-116.
Sevim, A., Donzelli, B., Wu, D., Demirbag, Z., Gibson, D.M., Turgeon, B. 2012. Hydrophobin genes of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, are differentially expressed and corresponding mutants are decreased in virulence. Current Genetics. 58:79-92.
Humber, R.A. 2012. Identification of entomopathogenic fungi. In: Lacey, L.A., editor. Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology. London,UK: Academic Press. p 151-187.
Humber, R.A. 2012. Preservation of entomopathogenic fungal cultures. In: Lacey, L.A., editor. Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology. Chapter 10. London, UK: Academic Press. p. 317-328.
Rehner, S.A., Humber, R.A., Minnis, A., Sung, Gi-Ho, Luangsa-Ard, J., Devotto, L. 2011. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria. Mycologia. 103(5):1055-1073.
O Donnell, K., Humber, R.A., Geiser, D.M., Kang, S., Park, B., Robert, V.A., Crous, P.W., Johnston, P.R., Aoki, T., Rooney, A.P., Rehner, S.A. 2011. Phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data and their molecular identification via FUSARIUM-ID and Fusarium MLST. Mycologia. 104(2):427-445.
D'Alessandro,, W., Humber, R.A., Luz,, C. 2012. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Veterinary Parasitology. 188:156-159. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.02.016.
Gams,, W., Humber, R.A., Jaklisch,, W., Kirschner,, R., Stadler,, M. 2012. Minimizing the chaos following the loss of article 59: suggestions for a necessary discussion. Mycotaxon. 119:495-507. DOI: 10.5248/119.495.
Sung, J., Lee, J., Humber, R.A., Sung, G., Shrestha, B. 2006. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea. Mycobiology. 34(1):1-6. DOI: 10.4489/MYCO.2006.34.1.001.
Rocha,, L., Inglis,, P., Humber, R.A., Kipnis,, A., Luz,, C. 2012. Occurrence of Metarhizium spp in central Brazilian soils. Journal of Basic Microbiology. DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201100482.