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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: Choline Content of Commonly Eaten Foods

Location: Nutrient Data

2011 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective is to identify and quantify the choline containing components in representative samples of foods and dietary supplements. These data will improve and expand USDA nutrient databases such as the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, which is released on the Nutrient Data Laboratory website, and the Nutrient Database for Food Consumption Surveys.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) is responsible for developing and disseminating authoritative food composition databases of foods in the U.S. diet. NDL has developed a Key Food approach to help establish priorities for foods to be analyzed. Key Foods are those identified as contributing up to 75% of any one nutrient of public health significance. Key Foods form the core of foods to be analyzed, supplemented by other foods deemed of particular interest due to their frequent use as ingredients or content of nutrients of emerging interest. Sampling plans will be developed for each type of food sampled, to assure a representative sampling of the food supply. Samples of food will be delivered to the Cooperator for analysis. In some cases the Cooperator may need to develop food matrix specific methods for handling and analyzing samples and preparing aliquots for shipment to other researchers for analysis of additional food components. The Cooperator will also offer expertise in interpretation of results of the choline components analyses.


3.Progress Report

Choline is needed for normal cell function, assists in the metabolism of fat and cholesterol, and prevents fat accumulation in the liver. Betaine, a derivative of choline, is important for its role in the donation of methyl groups used in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. While the Institute of Medicine made recommendations for choline intake in 1998, estimating an Adequate Intake (AI), a high priority need for data on choline composition of foods and choline intake in the U.S. population was identified. During 2011 scientists at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill analyzed 29 composites of different food samples and control materials, including American cheese items, pancake mix, bacon, rotisserie chicken, mayonnaise, cake, breakfast cereal, and luncheon meat. Occasional conversations and e-mails with both the analytical chemist and the primary investigator at the cooperating laboratory were held to answer any questions relating to the data. Data from this project have been used by the research community in epidemiological studies and to establish a relationship between choline and betaine intake and the etiology of neural tube defect. Those data were released as part of SR24 for use by researchers in government, academia, and industry.


Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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