1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Mitigate the threat of wheat stem rust disease, particularly Ug99, to the Pakistani wheat crop. Increase wheat yields and enhance wheat production with both improved varieties and greater adoption of best management practices.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
ARS will complete agreements for various elements of project implementation with CIMMYT (development of new varieties of rust-resistant wheat), ICARDA (agronomy to optimize wheat production), the ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory (characterize wheat stem rust races in Pakistan), and ARS Raleigh (genotyping to support effective breeding for wheat rust protection).
Agreements were completed with CIMMYT, ICARDA, the University of Minnesota, Washington State University, and North Carolina State University to conduct research and agronomy activities in support of this project. CIMMYT cooperators in Pakistan have begun to multiply samples of yellow rust and stem rust. Pakistani pathologists have been trained on stem rust survey and race typing methodologies at the ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory (Project number 3640-21220-020-00). Samples of stem rust were shipped from Pakistan to the ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory, according to USDA APHIS guidelines. Pakistani wheat germplasm, evaluated and selected by scientists from several Pakistani research stations, has been planted in Kenya for stem rust evaluation, and genetic screening was conducted at the ARS Plant Science Research Unit in Raleigh, NC (project number 6645-22000-016-00). ARS-Wheat Genetics, Quality Physiology and Disease Research Laboratory at Pullman, WA are characterizing the molecular genotypes of Pakistani rust isolates to compare with U.S. and other isolates and completed a field evaluation for stripe rust resistance of the Pakistan wheat nurseries containing 324 germplasm lines of Pakistan origin and breeding lines we received from previous Pakistan collaborators (Project number 5348-22000-014-00). Several scientists from Pakistan attended the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative 2011 conference in St. Paul, MN. Challenges for 2011 include difficulty with obtaining U.S. visas for Pakistani travelers; restrictions on USG travel within Pakistan; and dissolution of the Pakistani Ministry of Food and Agriculture, with responsibilities for various agriculture oversight and management functions to be determined. This agreement terminates at the end of FY-2011, so this will be the final report of this project. However ongoing activities will be reported under the ongoing SCAs with CIMMYT (project number 0206-22000-001-32) and ICARDA (project number 0206-22000-001-33).