2011 Annual Report
Objective 2: Develop novel technology to enable the commercial production of nanofibers from biopolymers. Objective 3: Develop commercially viable biobased polymers and polymer blends with improved functionality.
Objective 4: Develop technologies to enable the commercial production of non-fuel commodity bioproducts from agricultural and biorefinery feedstocks and byproducts.
In addition to composite materials, micro and nanofibers and/or nanoparticles will be made from biopolymers using a solution blow spinning technology recently developed. Biopolymer solutions will be used to make an array of micro and nanofibers with active agents that provide functionality for applications for medical products and personal hygiene items. Nanoparticles from starch and/or cellulose will be produced by chemical and mechanical means. The materials will be used to make nanocomposites with improved strength and modulus. Low molecular weight polyesters will be made based on di and triols/diacids that can plasticize polylactic acid (PLA) or polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PLA and PHA polymers containing the plasticizers will be tested for strength and stability by recording mechanical properties. Green pathways for making styrene and terephthalic acid will be explored along with other WRRC cooperators. The Bioproducts Group’s main focus in this collaborative effort will be to assist in characterizing the mechanical and physical properties of the biopolymers and partnering with industry to facilitate scale-up. Non-fuel commodity bioproducts from crop residues, fish waste and wheat gluten will be made. Cellulose fiber will be extracted from crop residues and processed into bioproducts including agricultural mulches and tessellated fiber board. Bioproducts from fish waste will include gelatin polymers for biomedical applications such as tissue scaffolding. Nanofibers from fish gelatin or blends of fish gelatin and other polymers will be made by electrospinning. Processing parameters will be optimized and fiber properties will be characterized using microscopy and analytical methods. Antibiotics will be incorporated into the fibers and films. The antimicrobial effectiveness of fibers will be compared to films as to their effectiveness against different bacteria using an overlay inhibition technique. Work on wheat gluten bioproducts will also be performed with the goal of developing natural protein polymers from vital wheat gluten that can be chemically modified to impart greater ability to absorb water. Formerly 5325-41000-044-00D (6/09). Replacing 5325-41000-051-00D (8/10)
Six genetic variants of wheat have been obtained from a WRRC collaborator. These new wheat types are of interest because the proteins in them have an increased number of potential crosslinks, a higher average molecular weight, and the compositions are more focused to a few proteins. To recover the protein we have investigated two separation methods: (1) a conventional, normally preferred, method of protein enrichment by dough development and starch washout that capitalizes on wheat protein properties at the seed stage; and (2) an alternative that fully solubilizes the protein by unfolding and may alternatively reduce the protein to shorter molecular weight (MW). The former method unexpectedly has been unable to recover any protein and preliminarily suggests a lower ability to adsorb water; whereas, the alternative is quantitative but makes use of concentrated detergent. Consequently, we have spent considerable effort to characterize the protein at the seed stage to verify some of the reported attributes and to characterize compositional and structural anomalies. This work has led to a collaboration between ARS scientists at the WRRC and WSU/ARS Grain Quality Lab, because some of the approaches taken locally could also have very important impact on wheat-for-bread characterization.
Azevedo, H.M., Mattoso, L.H., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Filho, G.C., Munford, M.L., Wood, D.F., Mchugh, T.H. 2010. Nanocellulose reinforced chitosan composite films as affected by nanofiller loading and plasticizer content. Journal of Food Science. 75(1):N1-N7.
Barghini, A., Ivanova, V.I., Imam, S.H., Chiellini, E. 2010. Poly-(Epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: Morphology and thermal-mechanical properties. Journal of Polymer Science. 48:5282-5288.
Bilbao-Sainz, C., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Wood, D.F., Williams, T.G., Mchugh, T.H. 2010. Composite edible films based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose nanoparticles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(6):3753-60.
Gordon, S.H., Mohamed, A., Harry O Kuru, R.E., Imam, S.H. 2010. A chemometric method for correcting FTIR spectra of biomaterials for interference from water in KBr discs. Applied Spectroscopy. 64(4):448-457.
Muniz, C.R., Freire, F.O., Viana, F.P., Cardoso, J.E., Cooke, P.H., Wood, D.F., Guedes, I.F. 2010. Colonization of cashew plants by Lasiodiplodia theobromae: Microscopical features. Micron. 42: 419-428.
Picciani, P.H., Medeiros, E.S., Pan, Z., Wood, D.F., Orts, W.J., Mattoso, L.H., Soares, B.G. 2010. Structural, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of electrospun poly(lactic acid)/polyaniline blend fibers. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. 295: 618-627.
Pojanavaraphan, T., Magaraphan, R., Chiou, B., Schiraldi, D.A. 2010. Development of biodegradable foamlike materials based on casein and sodium montmorillonite clay. Biomacromolecules. 11(10):2640-2646.
Xue, C., Wang, D., Xiang, B., Chiou, B., Sun, G. 2010. Controlled and high throughput fabrication of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) nanofibers via melt extrusion of immiscible blends. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 124(1):48-51.
Li, G., Sarazin, P., Orts, W.J., Imam, S.H., Favis, B. 2011. Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch and its blends with poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene: influence of morphology. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 212(11):1147-1154.
Bilbao-Sainz, C., Wood, D.F., Williams, T.G., Mchugh, T.H., Avena Bustillos, R.D. 2010. Nanoemulsions prepared by a low-energy emulsification method applied to edible films. Micron. 58(22):11932-11938.
Medeiros, E.S., Mattoso, L.H., Bernardes-Filho, R., Wood, D.F., Orts, W.J. 2008. Self-assembled films of cellulose nanofibrils and poly(o-ethoxyaniline). Colloid and Polymer Science. 286(11)1265-1272.
Picciani, P., Medeiros, E.S., Pan, Z., Orts, W.J., Mattoso, L.E., Soares, B. 2008. Development of conducting polyaniline/poly(lactic acid) nanofibers by electrospinning. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 112(2):744-751. Glenn, G.M., Klamczynski, A., Chiou, B., Imam, S.H., Orts, W.J., Wood, D.F., Ludvik, C.N. 2007. In-situ lamination of starch-based baked foam articles with degradable films. Packaging Technology and Science. 20(2):77-85.
Aouada, F., Chiou, B., Orts, W.J., Mattoso, L.H. 2009. Physicochemical and morphological properties of poly (acrylamide) and methylcellulose hydrogels: rffects of monomer, crosslinker and polysaccharide compositions, polymer engineering and science. Polymer Engineering & Science. 49(12):2467-2474.
Glenn, G.M., Klamczynski, A., Wood, D.F., Chiou, B., Orts, W.J., Imam, S.H. 2010. Encapsulation of plant oils in porous starch microspheres. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(7):4180-4184.
Petrovic, Z.S., Xu, Y., Miliae, J., Klamczynski, A., Glenn, G.M. 2010. Biodegradation Of thermoplastic polyurethanes from vegetable oils. Journal of Environment and Polymers. 18(2):94-97.