2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The long-term goal of this project is to increase knowledge of the biology and ecology of the coffee berry borer, and to develop innovative user-friendly, economical, and environmentally acceptable pest management technologies that can be effectively implemented. Research will focus on finding previously unrecorded natural enemies, testing a recently discovered biocontrol agent, determining whether volatiles produced by the berry can serve as attractants or repellents, and determining whether microorganisms play a role in how the insect survives on a food source containing caffeine. Over the next 5 years we will focus on the following objectives:
Objective 1: Discover and evaluate the biological control potential of natural enemies of tropical pests, particularly the coffee berry borer.
• Sub-objective 1.A. Identify new natural enemies of the coffee berry borer through ongoing collaborations, focusing on Kenya, Ethiopia, and Uganda.
• Sub-objective 1.B. Evaluate the biocontrol potential of a recently discovered
coffee berry borer predator.
Objective 2: Develop methods for managing tropical pests (with focus on coffee berry borer) based on knowledge of pest biology (e.g., attractants and repellents, as well as microorganism-mediated mechanisms that allow the insect to thrive on coffee), and host plant-pest interactions, as deduced by studies of host gene expression in response to infestation.
• Sub-objective 2.A. Identify coffee plant volatiles that attract or repel coffee berry borers, using in planta volatile collection techniques.
• Sub-objective 2.B. Identify microorganisms associated with the coffee berry borer that contribute to insect establishment and survival inside the berry, and determine the mechanism of the interaction.
These objectives will integrate various components that we believe are essential to greatly improving our understanding of the beetle and to move the field into a new direction.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
The project will focus on the discovery and evaluation of the biological control potential and mechanisms of natural enemies of tropical pests, in particular coffee berry borer. Through ongoing collaborations new natural enemies of the coffee Berry borer will be identified and their potential as biological control agents will be evaluated. This portion of the project will focus on natural enemies from Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda. Further evaluations of the biological control potential of other recently discovered insect predators will be continued. The project will also focus on improving our understanding of the biology of the coffee berry borer. The project will evaluate the insect’s ability to be attracted or repelled by natural coffee volatiles. These plant attractants and/or repellents will be further evaluated for their biological control potentials. Finally microorganisms will be identified from coffee Berry borers. These organisms will be evaluated for their ability to help the insect establish itself and survive inside the coffee berry. The biology of the insect-microorganism-interaction will also be evaluated.
Various research projects were conducted aimed at developing biological control strategies against the coffee berry borer. Sampling of coffee berries infested with the coffee berry borer in Mexico was conducted in collaboration with scientists at El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Samples have been collected from 20 coffee plantations in the Soconusco region of Chiapas. More than 18,000 coffee berries have been processed, containing over 21,000 adult coffee berry borers of which 116 specimens were infected with nematodes. Identification of the nematodes is pending. Research aimed at finding previously unreported natural enemies of the coffee berry borer by determining alternate host plants of the coffee berry borer was conducted in collaboration with scientists at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew. The survey of Kew’s collection continued with a focus on Rubiaceae (coffee family). In addition, the entire holdings of Coffea at the Natural History Museum of London was examined, as well as at the National Botanic Gardens in Belgium. We continue to see a distinct pattern of coffee berry borer infestation in Coffea, where infestation is restricted to West Africa, either on or west of the Great River Valley, with Coffea canephora being the key host within Coffea. Scanning electron microscope research aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer possesses mycangia (pits on the cuticle that can harbor microorganisms) is in progress. A volatile that might be acting as a coffee berry bore repellent was identified and tested in laboratory bioassays in collaboration with USDA-ARS-Peoria. Research done in collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, aimed at identifying the internal microbial diversity associated with the coffee berry borer, has resulted in the identification of dozens of microorganisms. The possible role of these microorganisms on the biology of the insect is under study.
Parsa, S., Ortiz, V., Vega, F.E. 2013. Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 74:e50360.
Ceja Navarro, J., Brodie, E.L., Vega, F.E. 2012. A technique to dissect the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), with isolation of internal microorganisms. The Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research (JEAR). 44:e21.