1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Apply lidar technology to the development of remote sensing methods for measuring particulate emission and dispersion from agricultural systems.
2. Develop dual lidar systems to improve the measurement of emissions and their dispersion from individual sources and whole facilities or management operations.
3. Apply lidar to the measurement of water vapor and other gases from agricultural systems.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
To address this problem we propose to follow these steps in developing this remote sensing approach for particulate emissions from animal production facilities:
1) produce qualitative 2-D images of plume emission and dispersion from a CAFO.
2) quantify statistical or turbulent properties of the flow field of a CAFO.
3) establish a protocol for a remote sensing approach to measure particulates at a CAFO.
4) conduct multiple 24-hour campaigns to capture all diurnal stability cases.
5) convert 2-D qualitative information to quantitative data using results from the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) to define size fractionation of the particulates.
6) using the size fractionation results from 5 compute flux estimates at the whole facility scale and compare with available published data;
7) using the first 6 steps, apply the remote sensing approach to cropping surfaces to compare tillage and harvest practices, i.e., particulate flux emissions at the field scale.
Estimation of emission and dispersion from agricultural systems is a complex problem because of the limitations of ground-based meteorological towers to capture the movement of the plume away from different emission sources. An effort has been made to utilize lidar data to measure the particulate concentration in plumes emitted by livestock buildings and the concentration of water vapor in air from ground-based spray equipment. Emissions of particulates from a poultry facility showed that concentrations of particulates were highest directly above the buildings with the movement dependent upon the windspeed and the atmospheric stability. Similar results were found from observations of water droplet movement away from a ground-based application unit. The movement of the spray application unit created a wake effect which increased the upward movement of these droplets and their downwind dispersion. Understanding the factors controlling the dispersion patterns from agricultural systems allows for the application of technologies which would control these emissions.