Location: Processed Foods Research
2012 Annual Report
• Sub-objective 1.1. Pinpoint and identify impact aroma compounds of raw materials and food products from legumes, almonds, grapes, olives, and wild rice using GC-Olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Study flavor variation in different varieties. • Sub-objective 1.2. Isolate and characterize phytonutrients in raw materials and food products from legumes, almonds, grapes, olives, and wild rice. Determine the effects of processing on the levels of these constituents and also monitor changes in biological activity (i.e., antioxidant activity).
Objective 2: Add value to legumes, barley, rice, and potatoes and their fractions using extrusion, concentration and size reduction technologies to modify, control or enhance their nutritional, functional and sensory properties for the development of convenient and desirable gluten containing and gluten-free products with higher quality, shelf life and health benefits.
• Sub-objective 2.1. Develop healthy, nutritious, and convenient snack foods from legumes, barley, rice, wheat, apple, and potatoes, and their fractions using extrusion processing and forming technologies. • Sub-objective 2.2. Develop legume-based beverages formulated with conventional and non-conventional food ingredients, flours and protein powders from rice, wheat, and barley cooked by extrusion processing, drum drying, open kettle, pressure cooking, microwave cooking, and infrared cooking. The resulting cooked legume-based products in the form of powders will be used directly or pretreated by high pressure, microfluidizer processing, and high shear technology, as the base component for beverages with functional properties.
This project involves the production of novel snack foods and beverages from legumes, barley, rice, potatoes and other agricultural products. The development of nutritious and tasty foods requires knowledge about the phytonutrients and flavor precursors present in the raw materials. The effects of processing on phytonutrient and flavor concentrations will be studied and processing parameters will be optimized to preserve these constituents. The scientists on this project have expertise in their respective areas and will work closely to achieve the objectives.
Culinary rhubarb is consumed as a vegetable and is prized for its use in pies, tarts and sauces. Rhubarb stalks are also processed for jam, jelly, compote, juice and wine and used as ingredients in ice cream, yogurt, candies and other specialties. The roots and rhizomes of rhubarb have been extensively studied due to their importance as medicines to treat constipation, inflammation and cancer. However, much less is known about the composition and activity of the stalks. Therefore, we studied the antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin content of twenty-nine rhubarb varieties. Seven of the varieties (Plum Hutt, Valentine, Minnesota No. 8, Cherry Red, Cawood Delight, Coulter McDonald and OR 23) had higher total phenolics than kale, a vegetable with high total phenolics. Anthocyanin concentration in rhubarb was moderate, ranging from 19.8 ± 1.5 to 341.1 ± 41.6 mg/100 g DW. Valentine, Plum Hutt and Minnesota No. 8 had the highest antioxidant activity of the varieties investigated. Because of their high total phenolics content and antioxidant activity, Plum Hutt, Valentine and Minnesota No. 8 appear to have potential nutritional advantages over other varieties although additional studies are needed to determine their phenolic composition.
The use of rice protein concentrate a byproduct of rice syrup production, for the development of value-added gluten-free pasta formulated with legume pulses and other sources and forms of starch and dietary fiber was also investigated. Rice protein concentrate and legume pulse-based prototype gluten-free extruded pastas were fabricated. Preliminary selected formulations were hydrated into dough using different amount of water at room temperature. The test indicated that the ingredients were not evenly homogenized, presented a grainy feeling, and the resulted pasta were brittle. Luke warm water was shown to help making more homogenized dough. A combination of xanthan gum and guar gum was compared to konjac xanthan gum to see the differences in holding ability. Konjac xanthan gum showed a better holding ability on the pasta. Preliminary bench sensory result showed that extrusion improved the final texture of the pasta. The results demonstrated that novel, nutritious, high value gluten free pastas can be fabricated using rice protein concentrate as an ingredient in combination with pulses and selected forms of starch and dietary fiber. A patent application will be drafted and submitted based on the developed product and technology.
Takeoka, G.R., Ebeler, S.E. 2011. Progress in authentication of food and wine. American Chemical Society Symposium Series. p. 1-11. DOI:10.1021/bk-2011-1081.ch001.
Takeoka, G.R., Buttery, R.G. 2012. Preparation and characterization of 2-formyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, a compound with a cracker-like odor. Journal of Food Chemistry. 132:2131-2134.
Nayak, B., Liu, R., Berrios, J.D., Tang, J., Derito, C. 2011. Bioavailability of antioxidants in extruded products prepared from purple potato and dry pea flours. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(15):8233-8243. DOI: 10.1021/jf200732p.
Nayak, B., Berrios, J.D., Power, J.R., Tang, J. 2011. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (Cv. Purple Majesty) and their impact on antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 59(20):11040-11049. DOI: 10.1021/jf201923a.
Nayak, B., Berrios, J.D., Power, J.R., Tang, J. 2011. Effect of extrusion on the antioxidant capacity and color attributes of expanded extrudates prepared from purple potato and yellow pea flour mixes. Journal of Food Science. 76(6):C874-C883. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02279x.
Nayak, B., Berrios, J.D., Power, J.R., Ji, Y., Tang, J. 2011. Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) dried into antioxidant-rich value-added foods. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 35(5):571-580.