2013 Annual Report
The role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the regulation of plant receptor kinases was established. It was also discovered that the binding of calcium/calmodulin mediates regulation of receptor kinase signaling.
The molecular basis for decreased productivity in response to elevated ozone was investigated and genetic variation in soybean was established and a mapping population produced to map O3 sensitivity resistance QTLs. Mechanistic models of photosynthesis were employed to predict changes that would result in improved photosynthetic efficiency and proof of concept experiments conducted. It was established that the biochemical basis for the “Green Seed Problem” of canola is due to the interference with the regulation of a key enzyme in the degradation pathway.
Techniques were developed for metabolic analysis of growing leaves under elevated CO2 and O3 to identify key components involved in controlling growth and the importance of antioxidant metabolism established. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and drought on soybean performance was investigated illustrating the elevated CO2 could ameliorate the effects of mild to moderate drought by conserving soil moisture but did not help and in fact exacerbated the impacts of severe drought. The interaction of elevated CO2 and increased temperature on the photosynthetic and agronomic performance of corn and soybean under production field conditions was also investigated. It was demonstrated, as predicted by theory, that elevated CO2 raises the temperature optimum of C3 but not C4 crops. Shorter term heating to mimic heat wave treatments were conducted showing that when applied during different developmental stages in corn and soybean the most severe effects on yield were when the heat wave treatment coincided with reproductive development.
The impact of alternative bioenergy crops on hydrological cycle at multiple spatial scales was investigated using leaf chamber techniques and scaling to the canopy and landscape with modeling and eddy covariance measurements. It was discovered that leaves are sufficiently coupled to the atmosphere that leaf level effects extrapolate in predictable ways to the canopy scale. The consequences of land cover change associated with alternative bioenergy crops on greenhouse gas emission was measured showing and quantifying the importance of starting land cover and level of establishment of the new crop.
VanLoocke, A., Twine, T.E., Zeri, M., Bernacchi, C.J. 2012. A regional comparison of water use efficiency for miscanthus, switchgrass and maize. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 164:82-95.
Bates, G.W., Rosenthal, D.M., Sun, J., Chattopadhyay, M., Peffer, E., Jones, A.M., Ort, D.R. 2012. A comparative study of the Arabidopsis thaliana guard-cell transcriptome and its modulation by sucrose. PLoS One. 7(11):e49641.
Anderson-Teixeira, K.J., Masters, M.D., Black, C.K., Zeri, M., Hussain, Z., Bernacchi, C.J., DeLucia, E. 2013. Altered belowground carbon cycling following land use change to perennial bioenergy crops. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-012-9628-x.
Smith, C.M., David, M.B., Mitchell, C.A., Masters, M.D., Anderson-Teixiera, K.J., Bernacchi, C.J., DeLucia, E.H. 2013. Reduced nitrogen losses following conversion of row crop agriculture to perennial biofuel crops. Journal of Environmental Quality. 42:219-228.
Borak, B., Ort, D.R., Burbaum, J.J. 2013. Energy and carbon accounting to compare bioenergy crops. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 24(3):369-375.
Slattery, R.A., Ainsworth, E.A., Ort, D.R. 2013. A meta-analysis of responses of canopy photosynthetic conversion efficiency to environmental factors reveal major causes of yield gap. Journal of Experimental Botany. DOI:10.1093/jxb/ert207.
Gomez-Casanovas, N., Anderson-Teixeira, K., Zeri, M., Bernacchi, C.J., DeLucia, E.H. 2013. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration. Global Change Biology. 19(6):1941-1952.
Zeri, M., Zaman Hussain, M., Anderson-Teixeira, K.J., DeLucia, E.H., Bernacchi, C.J. 2013. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 118(2):581-589.
Hussain, M.Z., VanLoocke, A., Markelz, R., Leakey, A., Ort, D.R., Bernacchi, C.J. 2013. Future carbon dioxide concentration decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion by field-grown maize. Global Change Biology. 19(5):1572-1584.
Gilmanov, T.G., Wylie, B.K., Tieszen, L.L., Meyers, T.P., Amiro, B.D., Baron, V.S., Bernacchi, C.J., Billesbach, D.P., Burba, G.G., Fischer, M.L., Hatfield, J.L., Prueger, J.H. 2013. CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: estimates from flux tower measurements. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 164:162-175.
Betzelberger, A.M., Yendrek, C.R., Sun, J., Leisner, C.P., Nelson, R.L., Ort, D.R., Ainsworth, E.A. 2012. Ozone exposure response for U.S. soybean cultivars: linear reductions in photosynthetic potential, biomass and yield. Plant Physiology. 160(4):1827-1839.
Yendrek, C.R., Leisner, C.P., Ainsworth, E.A. 2013. Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris. Global Change Biology. 19(10):3155-3166.
Ainsworth, E.A., Serbin, S.P., Skoneczka, J.A., Townsend, P.A. 2013. Using leaf optical properties to detect ozone effects on foliar biochemistry. Photosynthesis Research. DOI:10.1007/s11120-013-9837-y.
Wu, X., Vellaichamy, A., Wang, D., Zamdborg, L., Kelleher, N., Huber, S.C., Zhao, Y. 2013. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics. Journal of Proteomics. 79:60-71.
Oh, M., Wu, X., Kim, H., Harper, J., Zielinski, R., Clouse, S.D., Huber, S.C. 2012. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity. FEBS Letters. 586(23):4070-4075.
Wu, X., Oh, M., Kim, H., Schwartz, D., Imai, B., Yau, P., Clouse, S.D., Huber, S.C. 2012. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity. Frontiers in Plant Science. 3:262.
Bernacchi, C.J., Bagley, J.E., Serbin, S.P., Ruiz-Vera, U.M., Rosenthal, D.M., VanLoocke, A.D. 2013. Modelling C3 photosynthesis from the chloroplast to the ecosystem. Plant Cell and Environment. 36:1641-1657.
Zeri, M., Anderson-Teixeira, K., Hickman, G., Masters, M., DeLucia, E., Bernacchi, C.J. 2011. Carbon exchange by establishing biofuel crops in Central Illinois. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 144:319-329.