2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Determine the effect of composition, maturity, moisture, handling, processing, and relevant interactions on flavor, shelf-life and texture characteristics in peanuts, peanut products, and related commodities.
2. Improve flavor and flavor consistency and reduce off-flavor potential in peanut varieties, breeding lines, germplasm and peanut products.
3. Extract, isolate, identify, and evaluate bioactive and/or biochemical components in peanuts, peanut products, and peanut plants that may exhibit nutraceutical properties, nutritional quality, biochemical and physical functionality or non-food biomass potential.
4. Examine the functional characteristics, value added potentials, and allergenic aspects of peanut protein and enzyme-produced peptides with a concentration on peanut meal resulting from commercial oil extraction processes.
5. Examine processing methods that result in improved peanut and almond ingredient food safety with minimum changes in flavor, shelf life, composition, and processing quality potentials.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Individual effects of maturity, composition, and moisture content of individual seed and how these factors interact during blanching and subseqent oil and dry roast processing will be examined in varieties and breeding lines of peanuts grown in the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) at several different locations. Peanut samples with high standard flavor profiles, unique flavor profiles, and peanuts subjected to various deviations in production, curing, and handling procedures will be evaluated for variations in components identifiable by GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods. Compunds associated with specific flavor characteristics unique in presence or magnitude will be isolated and identified by GC-MS or HPLC-MS.
Newly developed microwave technology that provides uniform exposure to microwave
energy will be utilized to study the effects of various time and power protocols on drying rate, flavor, and shelf-life of shelled and inshell peanuts.
Individual effects of various protocols of temperature and time on peanut roast color were determined and demonstrated differences in moisture and protein solubility due to roast parameters. A program for the systematic extraction, identification and determination of bioactivity of small molecular weight compounds from peanuts and peanut plant residues was established and advanced to develop an innovative process for extracting and spray drying a polyphenolic enriched extract from peanut skins, a current by industry byproduct. Evaluations of samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) from several different locations resulted in continuing data useful to peanut breeders and manufacturers. Determination of protein, minerals, sugars, tocopherols and other nutrients was made on composite samples of three market types of peanuts, peanut flour and peanut butter as additions to the US database of food composition. Significant progress was made on processing of aflatoxin contaminated peanut meal with bentonite clays and proteases to produce both isolated protein and peptides along with aflatoxin sequestered animal feed. The addition of peanuts and fat free peanut flour to high fat, high cholesterol diets mitigated heart disease risk factors in hamsters and relegated aortic cholesteryl ester (the first compound present in development of atherosclerosis) deposition to levels similar to those found by aging alone. Further, peanuts added to the diet of animals with diet induced elevated cholesteryl ester levels resulted in lowering of cholesteryl esters to pre-induction levels. Temperature evaluation in peanut industry roasters indicated some variability in roaster function but, compared to published data, suggested sufficient temperature and time duration to reduce salmonella by industry required levels.