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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Research Project: Improvement & Maintenance of Flavor & Shelf-Life, Functional Characteristics & Biochem/bioactive Process, & Use of Genetic/genomic Resource

Location: Market Quality and Handling Research

2011 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Determine the effect of composition, maturity, moisture, handling, processing, and relevant interactions on flavor, shelf-life and texture characteristics in peanuts, peanut products, and related commodities.

2. Improve flavor and flavor consistency and reduce off-flavor potential in peanut varieties, breeding lines, germplasm and peanut products.

3. Extract, isolate, identify, and evaluate bioactive and/or biochemical components in peanuts, peanut products, and peanut plants that may exhibit nutraceutical properties, nutritional quality, biochemical and physical functionality or non-food biomass potential.

4. Examine the functional characteristics, value added potentials, and allergenic aspects of peanut protein and enzyme-produced peptides with a concentration on peanut meal resulting from commercial oil extraction processes.

5. Examine processing methods that result in improved peanut and almond ingredient food safety with minimum changes in flavor, shelf life, composition, and processing quality potentials.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Individual effects of maturity, composition, and moisture content of individual seed and how these factors interact during blanching and subseqent oil and dry roast processing will be examined in varieties and breeding lines of peanuts grown in the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) at several different locations. Peanut samples with high standard flavor profiles, unique flavor profiles, and peanuts subjected to various deviations in production, curing, and handling procedures will be evaluated for variations in components identifiable by GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods. Compunds associated with specific flavor characteristics unique in presence or magnitude will be isolated and identified by GC-MS or HPLC-MS.

Newly developed microwave technology that provides uniform exposure to microwave energy will be utilized to study the effects of various time and power protocols on drying rate, flavor, and shelf-life of shelled and inshell peanuts.


3.Progress Report
Significant progress was made in all aspects of this project. Individual effects of maturity, composition, and moisture content of individual seed and the relationship of these factors in oil roasting resulted in significant new information relative to oil retention after roasting. Evaluations of samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) from several different locations resulted in continuing data useful to peanut breeders and manufacturers. A major accomplishment was achieved in determination of flavor volatiles contributing to peanut flavor, and data from high temperature/short time and low temperature/long time roasting experiments revealed significant differences among numerous quality parameters. New research on processed peanuts provided unique understandings of several process parameters important to texture development. New research on value added food and feed products was completed with an emphasis on mitigating aflatoxin contamination.


Review Publications
He, X., Iasmin, M., Dean, L.L., Lappi, S., Ducoste, J.J., De Los Reyes, F.L. 2011. Evidence for fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 1545(10):4385-4391.

Dean, L.L., Whitley, M.L., Hendrix, K., Sanders, T.H. 2011. Environmental and varietal effects on the niacin content of raw and roasted peanuts. Peanut Science. 38(1):20-25.

Israel, D., Taliercio, E.W., Kwanyuen, P., Burton, J.W., Dean, L.L. 2011. Inositol metabolism and phytase activity in normal and low phytic acid soybean seed. Crop Science. 51:282-289.

Crossant, A.E., Washburn, S.P., Dean, L.L., Drake, M.A. 2007. Chemical properties and consumer perception of fluid milk from conventional and pasture-based production system. Journal of Dairy Science. 90:7456. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2007-0456.

Dean, L.L., Fenner, G.P., Boyd, L.C. 2009. Characterization of lipids and their oxidation products in baked or fried breaded shrimp products. Open Food Science Journal. 3:1-7.

Dean, L.L., Hendrix, K., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Sanders, T.H. 2008. Content of some nutrients in the core of the core of the peanut germplasm collection. Peanut Science. 36(2):104-120.

Dean, L.L., Sanders, T.H. 2009. Hexaconsanoic Acid and Other Long Chain Fatty Acids in Peanut Seed Oil. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization. DOI: 10.1017/S1479262109339155.

Stephens, A.M., Dean, L.L., Davis, J.P., Osborne, J.A., Sanders, T.H. 2010. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters. Journal of Food Science. 75(4):H116-H122.

Dean, L.L., Davis, J.P., Sanders, T.H. 2011. Groundnut (Peanut) Oil. In: Gunstone, F.D., editor. Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses. Second Edition. West Sussex, UK:Blackwell Science. p. 225-239.

Seifert, L.E., Davis, J.P., Dorner, J.W., Jaynes, W.F., Zartman, R.E., Sanders, T.H. 2010. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(9):5625-5632.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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