2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Over the next 5 years, the following specific objectives will be addressed: Objective 1: Determine the biochemical and macro-molecular properties of hard winter wheat protein and starch responsible for end-use quality. • Sub-objective 1A: Correlate the physicochemical properties of hard winter wheat starch to end-use quality. • Sub-objective 1B: Determine the physicochemical properties of hard winter wheat proteins responsible for end-use quality. Objective 2: Identify specific genes and glutenin alleles associated with superior hard winter wheat quality and end-use functionality, in cooperation with wheat breeders and geneticists. • Sub-objective 2A: Evaluate the effects of glutenin allelic variation on dough mixing, bread-making and other properties in U.S. hard winter wheat. • Sub-objective 2B: Identify candidate genes, alleles or allelic combinations (with emphasis on gliadins) responsible for end-use functionality of U.S. hard winter wheat. Objective 3: The USDA-ARS Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL) will define, evaluate, and screen the intrinsic end-use quality of hard winter wheat progenies in the Great Plains growing region to enhance germplasm and cultivar development. • Sub-objective 3A: Evaluate and screen the quality attributes of hard winter wheat experimental breeding lines and improve quality of existing hard winter wheat cultivars for end-product quality of world’s wheat-based staples, such as bread (whole wheat), tortillas, noodles and other products desired by customer markets. • Sub-objective 3B: Coordinate and conduct essential hard winter wheat projects of national importance, such as Wheat Quality Council (WQC), Overseas Varietal Analysis (OVA) and Regional Performance Nursery (RPN) for improvement of U.S wheat quality.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
This project will involve a multidisciplinary approach to identify the physical and biochemical components of hard winter wheat that contribute to functionality, with the goal of identifying specific wheat proteins and starches with unique characteristics and functional interactions.
Utilizing the Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL) relational database the importance of candidate genes and loci on quality parameters will be investigated and allelic combinations will be correlated to end-use functionality (e.g. dough mixing, bread making and other properties) of hard winter wheat. In addition we will evaluate the intrinsic end-use quality of hard winter wheat progenies for wheat breeding programs in the hard winter wheat Great Plains growing area. Wheat attributes desired by both domestic and international customers will be determined using rapid and objective methods for estimating/predicting textural and quality differences from: (a) small samples (< 10 g) in early generation hard winter wheat breeding lines to promote efficient selection of hard winter wheat lines for needed-quality bases, which would result in the possibility of shortening the breeding program by 1-2 years without sacrificing intrinsic quality evaluation efforts; and (b) from commercial hard winter wheats to enhance the marketing system based on intrinsic quality and determine and evaluate quality parameters directed toward uses of hard winter wheats in non-bread products such as tortillas and Asian noodles, to promote U.S. hard winter wheats in the domestic and export markets.
This project falls under National Program 306, “Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products”. Goals of NP 306 include “maintaining the quality” of U.S. crops, “enhancing their marketability,” and “expanding domestic and global market opportunities.” Research in this project is directed at identifying grain traits responsible for end-use functionality to improve the quality of wheat flour. The objectives of this project are very important and relevant to the scientific community, customers and stakeholders (breeders, farmers, the food industry and export markets). Both fundamental and applied approaches are carried out to expand our knowledge on how compositional attributes contribute to winter wheat functionality, as well as provided new approaches to characterize wheat components.
Research continued to concentrate on targeting the major constituents of flour (i.e. starch and protein) individually as well as part of a component system. Research is an integrated approach to determine the contributions of the major biochemical components and their interactions that occur when flour is transformed into dough.
Starch contributes functional qualities such as texture, volume, consistency, moisture and shelf stability to various baked products. Similarly, storage proteins have been studied in great detail after purification. We are focusing our efforts on identical hard winter wheat lines grown under dry land and irrigation resulting in a 2-3 % difference in protein content. We have identified 5 varieties with protein variance of which we will isolate starch for starch size distribution analysis, and correlate to bake quality and environmental conditions. Growing season 2011 saw a severe drought in Texas, Oklahoma and parts of Kansas, providing a unique opportunity to study these severe environmental effects on starch quality and quantity. We have isolated starch to correlate starch size distribution to end use bake quality. Flour particle size can also play a critical role in bread quality and is evaluated using laser diffraction to correlate these variables to quality.
The fine structure of starch (amylose-amylopectin ratios) is of critical importance to end use functionality. Few methods exist to screen large populations of starch for changes in amylose-amylopectin ratios, either due to genetic variability or environmental issues. Our goal is to completely solubilize cereal starch, with wide variations in amylopectin (100-0%) and attain reproducible HPSEC chromatographs. We have been able to solubilize maize, potato and sorghum starch with excellent results; we are just beginning our work on waxy and normal wheat starch.
The functions of the Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL) (Objective 3), provides critical information to the plant breeding community and both the domestic as well as international markets. This information is essential for the continued success of the HWW industry. Real-time wheat quality data was provided during the 2011 harvest to Plains Grains Inc. and updated weekly online for potential buyers.
Objective method to predict flour quality for breadmaking. Breeders and processors are always looking for rapid and accurate methods to evaluate wheat quality. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, small-scale method to accurately predict breadmaking quality for early generation hard winter wheat (HWW) breeding lines. A hybrid method using a combination of two solvents was developed and used to evaluate a diverse set of 53 HWW lines. The hybrid method was performed in 66% less time than the current method and required only 1g of sample and exhibited a higher correlation to bread loaf volume. Due to enhanced speed, accuracy, and simplicity the hybrid method should prove useful in breeding programs, grain elevators and wherever rapid assessment of end-use quality determination is required.
Flour particle size affects tortilla quality. Particle size distribution of flours is an important attribute for end-use quality. The effect of wheat flour particle size on tortilla quality was investigated. A collaborative effort between ARS scientists in Manhattan, KS with US Wheat Associates in Mexico City, Mexico determined that a strong correlation existed among larger particle size flours and mix times and tortilla rollability. The data has potential to be used to set milling standards for tortilla flour.
Chen, Y.R., Wang, Y., Dyson, D. 2011. Breadings - What they are and how they are used. In: Kulp, K., Loewe R., Lorenz, K. and Gelroth, J., editors. Batters and Breadings in Food Processing. 2nd edition. USA: American Association of Cereal Chemists; UK:Food Trade Press Ltd. p. 169-184.
Edwards, J.T., Hunger, R.M., Smith, E.L., Horn, G.W., Chen, M., Yan, L., Bai, G., Bowden, R.L., Rayas-Duarte, P., Osburn, R.D., Kolmer, J.A., Jin, Y., Porter, D.R., Giles, K.C., Seabourn, B.W., Bayles, M.B., Carver, B.F., Klatt, A. 2011. 'Duster' wheat: A durable, dual-purpose cultivar adapted to the southern great plains of the USA. Journal of Plant Registrations. 6(1):1-12.
Gonzales, H.B., Maghirang, R.G., Wilson, J.D., Razote, E.B. and Guo, L. 2012. Measuring cattle feedlot dust using laser diffraction analysis. Transactions of the ASABE. 49(1):98-105.
Hall, M.D., Griffey, C.A., Green, A., Liu, S., Gundrum, P., Berger, G., Brooks, W., Thomason, W.E., Hokanson, E.G., Behl, H.D., Pitman, R.M., Dunaway, D.W., Vaughn, M.E., Lewis, T., Custis, J.T., Seabourn, B.W., Chen, Y.R., Fountain, M.O., Marshall, D.S., Beahm, B.R., Whitt, D.L., Lin, C.J., Mennel, D.L. 2011. Registration of Vision 40 Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations. 5:360-366.
Hall, M.D., Griffey, C.A., Green, A., Liu, S., Gundrum, P., Berger, G., Brooks, Wynse, Thomason, W.E., Hokanson, E.G., Behl, H.D., Pitman, R.M., Dunaway, D.W., Vaughn, M.E., Lewis, T., Custis, J.T., Seabourn, B.W., Chen, Y.R., Fountain, M.O., Marshall, D.S., Beahm, B.R., Whitt, D.L., Lin, C.J., Mennel, D.L. 2011. Registration of Vision 30 Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations. 5:353-359.
Jondiko, T.O., Alviola, N.J., Hays, D.B., Ibrahim, A.M., Tilley, M. and Awika, J.M. 2012. Effect of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit allelic composition on wheat flour tortilla quality. Cereal Chemistry. 89(3):155-161.
Jonnala, R.S., Irmak, S., Macritchie, F., Bean, S. 2010. Phenolics in the bran of waxy wheat and triticale Lines. Cereal Chemistry. 52:509-515.
Li, Z., Huang, W., Liu, J.G., Tilley, M. and Chung, O.K. 2011. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase. Cereal Chemistry. 88(6):596-601.
Rudd, J., Devkota, R., Fritz, A., Baker, J., Obert, D.E., Worrall, D., Sutton, R., Rooney, L., Nelson, L., Morgan, G., Bean, B., Ibrahim, A., Klatt, A., Weng, Y., Bowden, R.L., Graybosch, R.A., Jin, Y., Seabourn, B.W. 2011. Registration of TAM401 wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations. 6:1–6.
Tilley, M., Miller, R.A., and Chen, Y.R. 2012. Wheat breeding and quality evaluation in the U.S. In: Cauvain, S. P. editor. Bread Making: Improving Quality. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited. p.216-236.
Wang, F., Huang, W., Kim, Y., Liu, R., Tilley, M. 2011. Effects of transglutaminase on the rheological and noodle-making characteristics of oat dough containing vital wheat gluten or egg albumin. Journal of Cereal Science. 54:53-59.
Zhu, L., Liu, Q., Wilson, J.D., Gu, M. and Shi, Y. 2011. Digestibility of rice (Oryza sativa L.) flours and starches differing in amylose content. Carbohydrate Polymers. 86:1751-1759.