Biochemical and Physical Characterization of Hard Winter Wheat Quality for End-Use Quality
Grain Quality and Structure Research Unit
Project Number: 5430-44000-024-00
Start Date: Jul 01, 2010
End Date: Jun 30, 2015
Over the next 5 years, the following specific objectives will be addressed: Objective 1: Determine the biochemical and macro-molecular properties of hard winter wheat protein and starch responsible for end-use quality. • Sub-objective 1A: Correlate the physicochemical properties of hard winter wheat starch to end-use quality. • Sub-objective 1B: Determine the physicochemical properties of hard winter wheat proteins responsible for end-use quality. Objective 2: Identify specific genes and glutenin alleles associated with superior hard winter wheat quality and end-use functionality, in cooperation with wheat breeders and geneticists. • Sub-objective 2A: Evaluate the effects of glutenin allelic variation on dough mixing, bread-making and other properties in U.S. hard winter wheat. • Sub-objective 2B: Identify candidate genes, alleles or allelic combinations (with emphasis on gliadins) responsible for end-use functionality of U.S. hard winter wheat. Objective 3: The USDA-ARS Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL) will define, evaluate, and screen the intrinsic end-use quality of hard winter wheat progenies in the Great Plains growing region to enhance germplasm and cultivar development. • Sub-objective 3A: Evaluate and screen the quality attributes of hard winter wheat experimental breeding lines and improve quality of existing hard winter wheat cultivars for end-product quality of world’s wheat-based staples, such as bread (whole wheat), tortillas, noodles and other products desired by customer markets. • Sub-objective 3B: Coordinate and conduct essential hard winter wheat projects of national importance, such as Wheat Quality Council (WQC), Overseas Varietal Analysis (OVA) and Regional Performance Nursery (RPN) for improvement of U.S wheat quality.
This project will involve a multidisciplinary approach to identify the physical and biochemical components of hard winter wheat that contribute to functionality, with the goal of identifying specific wheat proteins and starches with unique characteristics and functional interactions.
Utilizing the Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL) relational database the importance of candidate genes and loci on quality parameters will be investigated and allelic combinations will be correlated to end-use functionality (e.g. dough mixing, bread making and other properties) of hard winter wheat. In addition we will evaluate the intrinsic end-use quality of hard winter wheat progenies for wheat breeding programs in the hard winter wheat Great Plains growing area. Wheat attributes desired by both domestic and international customers will be determined using rapid and objective methods for estimating/predicting textural and quality differences from: (a) small samples (< 10 g) in early generation hard winter wheat breeding lines to promote efficient selection of hard winter wheat lines for needed-quality bases, which would result in the possibility of shortening the breeding program by 1-2 years without sacrificing intrinsic quality evaluation efforts; and (b) from commercial hard winter wheats to enhance the marketing system based on intrinsic quality and determine and evaluate quality parameters directed toward uses of hard winter wheats in non-bread products such as tortillas and Asian noodles, to promote U.S. hard winter wheats in the domestic and export markets.