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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Genetic and Biochemical Basis of Soft Winter Wheat Quality

Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research Unit

2012 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Develop rapid methods to detect improved milling and flour quality in commerce. 2. Develop improved standard cake baking method and alternatives for chlorinated flour. 3. Characterize the anatomical and biochemical differences linked to genetic markers for quality in collaboration with regional genotyping labs and state breeding programs. 4. Define soft wheat quality targets and measure eastern U.S. soft wheat breeding materials against those targets for the breeding programs and the milling industry.


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
The SWQL devotes between 60 and 70% of its efforts to testing new wheat germplasm for suitability as cultivars of the soft winter wheat classes. It uses American Association of Cereal Chemistry standard protocols that allow results to be compared across regions and through time. The results are compiled into multi-year datasets to test for improved milling and baking characteristics of new cultivars. The results of collaborative evaluations of milling and baking quality in breeding materials have been used to improve both the understanding and the genetic structure of breeding populations. To improve the selection of cultivars and use of soft wheat we will develop rapid methods to detect improved milling and flour quality in commerce. We will select untempered milling methods in combination with other rapid methods to measure milling and flour quality by measuring milling yield by standard AACC methods and then comparing them to samples milled with reduced tempering to generate prediction models. We also will select NIR or NIR with hyperspectral analysis methods to measure milling and flour quality. Baking method improvement will focus on cake baking methods and alternatives for chlorinated flour. We will develop a cake baking method with zero-trans fat shortening through standard testing of formula modification. Then it will be used to compare the effects of heat treatment, chlorination and GBSS mutation (waxy wheat) on starch pasting and cake baking performance. The optimum treatments will be combined to test the use of waxy wheat flour for replacing chlorinated flour for cake baking. Milling quality may relate to specific anatomical differences linked to genetic markers for quality. We will compare grain from near-isogenic lines for milling and flour quality. Specifically we will contrast cells from maternal tissue, aleurone and sub-aleurone from near-isogenic lines. Finally all this information will be summarized and reviewed through industry panels on a regular basis to refine the soft wheat quality targets and measure eastern U.S. soft wheat breeding materials against those targets for the breeding programs and the milling industry.


3.Progress Report:
This project will improve the milling and baking quality of soft wheat cultivars in the eastern US by developing new methods of evaluating quality and conducting cooperative research with wheat breeding programs to evaluate their breeding research trials. We completed the second year of rapid methods testing of grain quality. Improvements in the solvent retention capacity analyses to improve mixing and reduce repetitive motion were tested. To see if a time consuming mixing step can be eliminated while maintaining high quality analysis, the effect of not remixing mids (the milling fraction between 40 and 94 mesh) back into flour on micro analysis tests was determined. We also completed the second year of a two-year study that would allow grain elevators to estimate accurately the milling yield of a grain lot at the time of delivery. This could improve mill efficiency and add value to the grain market. We worked with collaborators to test the revised experimental cake method using zero-transfat shortening in the field. We worked with our industry partner to obtain experimentally chlorinated flours, which we are using to compare with heat treated flour to develop a replacement for industrial chlorination of cake flours. We began development of a method for testing quality of whole wheat pancakes. We began development of methods for evaluating arabinoxylan content of soft wheat flours, and examined the effects of flours made with sprouted wheat on mixograph results. Completed mapping studies to further map and validate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for soft wheat quality, and to assess the value of a marker for the TaSus2-2B locus in QTL mapping. Two hundred wheat varieties in an association mapping population evaluated for the presence of 9000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using the iSelect BeadChip platform. We tested more than 6000 grain samples for plant breeders use in selecting quality while developing varieties with improved disease resistance and grain yield. Prepared the Overseas Varietal Analysis, Wheat Quality Council and Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory Annual Reports. Launched new collaborator interface to expedite submission of breeder samples for analysis by the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory.


4.Accomplishments
1. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for soft wheat quality in multiple mapping populations. Public and commercial wheat breeders need consistent molecular markers associated with high soft wheat quality to screen germplasm as they develop high yielding, locally adapted cultivars that produce high quality flour. We identified regions of the wheat genome with repeatable effects on soft wheat quality. QTL regions from chromosome 1B and 2B are important and marker-assisted selection for favorable alleles at these loci should improve quality. Our results indicate that genetic variation at the TaSus-2B locus is important for soft wheat quality, and that sucrose synthase locus from the cultivar ‘Foster’ at this locus is either the cause of the quality QTL in this line or is closely linked to it.


Review Publications
Kweon, M., Slade, L., Levine, H. 2011. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. II. Validation of the method. Cereal Chemistry. 88(1):25-30.

Souza, E.J., Sneller, C., Guttieri, M.J., Sturbaum, A.K., Griffey, C., Sorrells, M., Ohme, H., Van Sanford, D. 2011. Basis for selecting soft wheat for end-use quality. Crop Science. 51(4):1424.

Souza, E.J., Guttieri, M.J., Sneller, C. 2011. Water-extractable nonstarch polysaccharide distribution in pilot milling analysis of soft winter wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 88(5):525-532.

Chen, J., Chu, C., Souza, E.J., Guttieri, M.J., Chen, X., Xu, S.S., Hole, D., Zemetra, R. 2011. Genome-wide identification of QTLs conferring high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in wheat. Molecular Breeding. DOI:10.1007/s11032-011-9590-x.

Guttieri, M., Souza, E.J., Sneller, C. 2011. Nutritional profile of whole grain soft wheat flour. Cereal Chemistry. 88(5):473-479.

Souza, E.J., Guttieri, M.J., Sneller, C. 2011. Selecting soft wheat genotypes for whole grain cookies. Crop Science. 51(1):189-197.

Guttieri, M.J., Souza, E.J., Sneller, C. 2011. Laboratory milling method for whole grain soft wheat flour evaluation. Cereal Chemistry. 88(1):1-5.

Kweon, M., Slade, L., Levine, H. 2011. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure. Cereal Chemistry. 88(1):19-24.

Smith, N., Guttieri, M., Souza, E.J., Shoots, J., Sorrells, M., Sneller, C. 2012. Identification of QTL for grain quality traits in a cross of soft wheat cultivars Pioneer brand ‘25R26’ and ‘Foster’. Crop Science. 52(1):21.

Kweon, M., Slade, L., Levine, H. 2011. Solvent retention capacity (SRC) testing of wheat flour: Principles and value in predicting flour functionality in different wheat-based food processes and in wheat breeding—a review. Cereal Chemistry. 88(6):537-552.

Heffner, E.L., Jannink, J., Iwata, H., Souza, E.J., Sorrells, M.E. 2011. Genomic selection accuracy for grain quality traits in biparental wheat populations. Crop Science. 51:2597-2606.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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