2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The overall project goal is to develop new technologies for producing commercially viable functional ingredients that promote human health and wellness from bioactive rich byproducts of the grain-milling industry. Our proposed research is built on the successful developments of the Trim Technologies in prior project research cycles that are marketed globally and generate millions of dollars in annual sales. The goal of this project plan is to be implemented through the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Develop new health promoting bioactive hydrosol products and functional soluble dietary fiber compositions by fractionation and enzymatic modification technologies; Objective 2: Characterize the biological activity of the new health promoting bioactive hydrosols and soluble dietary fibers compositions; Objective 3: Examine efficient enzyme systems for polysaccharide fragmentation with analysis and testing including in vitro and extended shelf-life experiments with collaborators from academia, industry and other ARS locations; Objective 4: Create biobased nano- or micro- composites by interacting nano- or micro- particles with newly developed biobased hydrosols and soluble fibers to improve health benefits for humans including the elderly, obese and children; Objective 5: Evaluate the newly created health promoting compositions in food uses and engage end user stakeholder groups in collaborative projects for technology transfer activities of the technologies and associated products.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Wholegrain cereal foods and other cereal products contain important sources of phyto-protective and other bioactive components that can occur in short supply in the diets of many consumers of developed nations. The long term goal of this project is to promote optimal health and wellness by creating innovative and economically viable food ingredients from cereal grains. By using scientific and technological conversion of cereal milling byproducts, it is proposed that suitable ingredients can be prepared for incorporation into functional foods. The specific hypothesis is that the conversion of cereal milling byproducts into bioactive functional ingredients will lead to creating natural hydrosol (e.g. colloid solution) and soluble fiber compositions that should be suitable and desirable for use in functional foods. We base that hypothesis on the following observations: .
1)cereal milling byproducts contain large quantities of bioactive and phyto-protective compounds;.
2)research on phytochemical enrichment and extraction has proven that physical, chemical and enzymatic treatment can produce phyto-protective and bioactive rich materials as food ingredients. They do not appear to interfere with processing/manufacturing properties and sensory profiles in functional food formulations. Based on these observations, we propose basic and applied research on these functional ingredients to be created from the cereal milled byproducts by determining their processing parameters and structure/property characteristics. Furthermore, structural and physical properties also will be determined by using microscopy, SEM, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, RVA, NMR and DSC. They also will be evaluated for their biological activities, chemical and processing properties for applications in functional foods. The proposed project will build upon our prior successes with the Trim products, a series of widely commercialized functional ingredients produced from cereal grains. This proposal will help with the continued advancement in food science that has moved the food industry along from just identifying and correcting nutritional deficiencies to creating functional foods that promote optimal health and wellness.
The recent research has generated science and technologies for developing new functional food opportunities, new functional food ingredients, market applications, and products with greater health benefits. New, high-value food products from agricultural commodities as well as their by-products were prepared as described in National Program 306. New and expanded markets for cereal grains including the utilization of agricultural by-products are important for improving the profitability of American agriculture. Also there are substantial benefits to American consumers for functional foods based on using our functional food ingredients. These new bioactive food ingredients were prepared for easy incorporation into functional food formulations. Our new functional food ingredients called hydrocolloid composites and their foods can provide greater health benefits for consumers for reducing medical expenses and improving wellness. They contribute to the new developments that will expand Trim technologies developments that have been prepared in the prior art. These new composites have omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids along with a beta-glucan component found in prior Trim products. A number of functional foods with enhanced levels of bioactive ingredients including our new developments will establish efficacy, bioavailability, and safety. Studies continue on soluble fibers, omega-3, and 6 fatty acids, which are bioactive components that are found in our new hydrocolloids prepared from chia and beta-glucan sources. A patent application has been submitted that will provide a continued expansion of Trim technologies.
Rice flour potential use. The research was done to benefit the health concerned consumers and batter processors by providing a method to decrease the oil uptake of batters during frying so consumers will consume less fat in their diet. High amylose rice flour that is called Goami 2 was separated into four fractions with different particle sizes and incorporated into the frying batter formulation as an oil barrier in fried foods. The use of the rice flour with smaller particle size produced batters with high viscosity and elasticity which resulted in increased batter pickup. This study could contribute to extensive use of rice flour in a wider variety of food products as a functional ingredient beyond the traditional staple diet in the form of boiled and cooked rice. In addition, since rice flour is gluten-free, the replacement of wheat flour with rice flour would be good for individuals with celiac disease to enjoy reduced gluten fried foods. These studies were carried out by Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Food Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Illinois, in collaboration with Korean scientists.
Barley-flaxseed healthy composites. The research was done to combine the bioactive components that are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley-flaxseed composites were prepared because they provide the soluble fiber ß-glucan that is beneficial for food texture and coronary heart disease prevention along with the health benefits of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of flaxseed. Barley, a powashonupana variety, has high ß-glucan content for improving nutritional, physical, and functional qualities. Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs), which is known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. New composite products of barley with flaxseed were prepared that could be useful for enhancing health benefits of functional foods. Barley was nutritionally enhanced with omega-3 PUFAs-rich oils from flaxseed. Besides the nutritional aspects of the barley-flaxseed composites, these composites have improved water holding capacities, texture, and useful viscoelastic qualities. These technologically developed products could be valuable for new functional foods having improved nutritional value and desirable texture qualities for health concerned consumers. These functional hydrocolloids could be valuable for developing new functional food products with useful health benefits for decreasing heart problems, diabetes, and obesity. The studies were carried out by Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Food Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Illinois.
Oat-chia health foods. The research was done to combine the bioactive components that are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. The results were unique oat-chia composites containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) from chia and high ß-glucan content from oat. The combination of oat with chia also gave improved texture and water holding capacities. These unique products are applicable and useful for developing healthy functional food, including drinks and various bakery products. These oat products and their properties appear to have great potential in functional foods for health concerned consumers. Studies carried out by G. E. Inglett and D. J. Chen, Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Food Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Illinois, identified a unique oat-chia composite.
Jeon, S., Lim, J., Inglett, G.E., Lee, S. 2013. Effect of enzymatic treatments on the rheological and oil-resisting properties of wheat flour-based frying batters. Journal of Food Engineering. 115:215-219.
Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Lee, S. 2013. Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 4:41-48.
Xu, J., Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Liu, S.X. 2013. Viscoelastic properties of oat ß-glucan-rich aqueous dispersions. Food Chemistry. 138:186-191.
Lee, S.M., Yoo, J., Inglett, G.E., Lee, S. 2013. Particle size fractionation of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour as an oil barrier in a batter-coated fried system. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 6:726-733.