1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
This research project is to develop analytical methods for phenolics and antioxidants in samples provided by USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Samples provided by USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory will be initially used for optimization of sample preparation procedures for extraction of phenolic phytochemicals from wheat samples. Different cultivars of wheat samples will be used to collect spectral fingerprints and determine whether spectral fingerprinting methods can be used to differentiate wheat samples based on cultivar or other phytochemical traits.
Whole wheat flour from five wheat cultivars was evaluated for phenolic, carotenoid and tocopherol composition, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells. Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid and was primarily present in an insoluble, bound form. Lutein was the only carotenoid detected. Extracts of four cultivars demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity, measured as inhibition of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) mRNA expression; however none of the extracts inhibited tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) mRNA expression, a second indicator of anti-inflammatory activity. Proliferation of HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells was inhibited by extracts from all cultivars at a the dose of 100 mg botanical equivalent/mL. The cultivar ‘WestBred 936’ had the greatest antiproliferative activity at lower concentrations, the greatest anti-inflammatory effect against IL-1ß, and the highest levels of ferulic acid and a-tocopherol. This research suggests that wheat varieties can be selected based on potential health benefits. We are currently investigating the influence of processing on the phytochemical profile and bioactivity. Three main fractions namely, ground wheat, dough, and baked breaded have been prepared and being used for this study.