2012 Annual Report
Conduct Geosmithia inoculation studies of Juglans species and accessions, with a focus on J. major and J. microcarpa. Documents SCA with UC Davis.
The NCGR facility allows for the evaluation of the degree of threat to the various species in the collection under on-site conditions. In addition, the collection affords a unique opportunity to compare susceptibility of mature trees of the various species all at one location. Field trees will be evaluated as follows: Healthy, intact branches (approximately 2 cm diameter) will be inoculated with an isolate of Geosmithia obtained from the NCGR site. Small puncture wounds will be made in the bark with a needle approximately the same diameter as the entry wounds created by the beetle (~0.5 mm) and inoculated with a conidial suspension of the pathogen. The wounds will then be covered with parafilm. Controls spaced along the same branch will include a non-inoculated wound and wounds inoculated with conidia of a nonpathogenic fungus (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans). Based on the initial survey and assessment, some of the other species in the collection will serve as highly susceptible (e.g., J. hindsii & J.californica) and highly resistant (e.g., J. ailantifolia and J. mandshurica) reference species for comparison. Artificial inoculations (March/April) will be made to try to approximate when the overwintering beetles emerge to initiate new infections. After an appropriate incubation period (several weeks), inoculated branches will be excised, transported to the laboratory and evaluated for canker development. Dimensions of each canker will be recorded and analyzed.
It is anticipated that 3-5 branches per tree will be routinely inoculate, with single tree reps and 3-5 trees per species of diverse accessions. It is believed that this field assessment will pose any additional risk to the collection because TCD is already present, and an isolate of the pathogen will be used that has been obtained from a diseased tree at the site, and all inoculated branches will be excised,removed from the site, and destroyed by heat inactivation after evaluation. Limb removal will ensure that the fungus does not move from the sites of inoculation.
There are additional host materials, some using parent material from the NCGR, which have been developed as part of the walnut rootstock improvement program. Of particular interest are rootstock hybrids that are also under evaluation for resistance to other important walnut diseases (e.g., crown gall, Phytophthora root and crown rot).