2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The purpose of this project is to develop management systems for organic grain production that incorporate minimum tillage, cover crops, and high value grains. Demand for organic food in the United States has increased 20% annually over the past 10 years (OTA, 2008). Organic price premiums and government programs are attracting farmers to organic grain production but these producers face challenges of potentially lower yields (Drinkwater et al., 1998; Delate and Cambardella, 2004; Cavigelli, 2008), greater weed pressures, and more complex nutrient management and crop rotation challenges. Although, farmers in the southeast are in a unique position to take advantage of demand for organic grains there is a need for development of reliable organic grain production practices.
1. Develop economically viable crop rotations for organic grain production.
2. Determine potential for use of conservation tillage in organic grain production.
3. Determine effects of organic grain production on soil quality.
4. Transfer technology to technical service providers, students and producers.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
We will evaluate corn, soybean, and wheat production in 2, 3, and 4 year rotations that will rely on legumes and animal manure (poultry litter, dairy manure etc.) as supplemental N sources. In addition cover crops will be evaluated and chosen for biomass production (weed control aspects) and potential for enhancing beneficial insects. We will consider small grains, clovers, summer cover crops (millet, sunn hemp, buckwheat, velvetbean) and alternative crops (sunflower, edamame, pigeon pea,). Productivity of systems will be evaluated based on crop yield and grain quality. Systems will be evaluated for weed, insect, and disease pressures. Nutrient availability will be determined through analysis of soils, harvest components, and crop biomass. Enterprise budgets will be developed to establish profitability of crop rotations.
Crop rotations will include comparisons of alternative organic weed management systems: one with major emphasis on intensive tillage and another with major emphasis on conservation tillage. Soil quality will be evaluated annually in the rotation and tillage treatments by measuring a number of soil parameters including soil carbon, particulate organic matter, microbial biomass, and potentially mineralizable N. Knowledge of systems for organic grain production emphasizing rotation, tillage, weed, pest, soil, and economics will be transferred to students, farmers and technical support personnel through workshops, class room instruction, hands on participation in the research project, brochures, bulletins and research publications.
This project is linked to Objective 2 "Develop and test bio-based management systems for stink bugs that are widely adaptable to various cropping systems in the southeastern region of the United States" of the in-house project. Funding for this project has only recently been received, and two of the research scientists on the project have been recently relocated to other laboratories. A Specific Cooperative Agreement with the University of Georgia was recently established to include a soil scientist with expertise in organic cropping systems and outreach activities on the project. At this point in time, we are mainly acquiring supplies and equipment and building stink bug capture traps to establish plots in the fall of this year.