Location: Commodity Utilization Research
2013 Annual Report
(1) To survey available accessions from the Genetic Resources Information Network (GRIN) cotton database for genotypes modified fatty acid profiles. (2) To prepare a series of gossypol derivatives and study their bioactivity. (3) To develop improved chromatographic methods for measuring low levels of gossypol. (4) To study the potential use of cottonseed protein in adhesive formulations. (5) Ro modify cottonseed oil hydrogenation processes to reduce levels of trans fatty acids. (6) Use model plant systems to identify and refine transgenic expression conditions for critical industrial oil biosynthetic genes. (7) Identify substrate specificity-determining sequences in pertinent genes from tung tree related species. (8) Tansfer knowledge of minimal necessary gene sets from current research (on tung tree genes) to other novel oilseed whose oil represents greater market size or strategic value; i.e., epoxy (from Crepis, Vernonia, and Euphorbia species) or acetylenic fatty acids (also from Crepis).
We continue to make cottonseed protein isolate (>90% protein) from cottonseed meals for adhesive studies (Objective 4). In addition, isolates were prepared from both glanded and glandless cotton varieties and characterized for their compositional and functional properties. The glandless isolates were very high in protein, exhibited high solubility in acid conditions, and had foaming and emulsion stabilization properties that would be useful in food processing.
Studies on the use of cottonseed and soy protein isolates as protein-based adhesives continued. Cottonseed protein isolate, either by itself or modified with sodium dodecylsulfate, was found have greater adhesive strength than soy isolate when used to glue maple veneer strips. Additionally, cottonseed meal was extracted with water and salt solutions to prepare protein concentrates (with about 70% protein) and these meal fractions were also found to exhibit adhesive properties comparable to the properties obtained with cottonseed isolates. In general, cottonseed protein adhesive were found to exhibit better resistance to water than similar soy protein-based adhesives.
Hydrogenation of soybean and cottonseed oils (Objective.
The ginning of cotton produces 15–42% of foreign materials, called cotton gin trash, which includes cotton burrs, stems, leaf fragments, and dirt. With collaborators at the National Center for Crops Utilization Research, the mechanical properties of plastic composites formed with cotton gin burr and low density polyethylene were studied. The results suggested that burr can be used to lower the cost of some plastic formulations.
He, Z., Waldrip, H.M., Yun, W. 2012. Application of capillary electrophoresis in agricultural and soil chemistry research. In: He, Z., editor. Capillary Electrophoresis: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications. New York, NY:Nova Science. p. 131-151.
He, Z., Mingxin, G., Lovanh, N., Spokas, K.A. 2012. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment. In: He, Z., editor. Applied Research of Animal Manure: Challenges and Opportunities beyond the Adverse Environmental Concerns. New York, NY:Nova Science. p. 299-309.
Wang, Y., He, Z., Waldrip, H.M. 2012. Capillary electrophoresis application in metal speciation and complexation characterization. In: He, Z., editor. Capillary Electrophoresis: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications. New York, NY:Nova Science. p. 117-130.
He, Z., Zhong, J., Cheng, H.N. 2013. Conformational change of metal phytates: solid state 1D 13C and 2D 1H-13C NMR spectroscopic investigations. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 11(1):965-970. He, Z., Shankle, M., Zhang, H., Way, T.R., Tewolde, H., Uchimiya, M. 2013. Mineral composition of cottonseed is affected by fertilization management practices. Agronomy Journal. 105(2):341-350.
Cheng, H.N., Dowd, M.K., He, Z. 2013. Investigation of modified cottonseed protein adhesives for wood composites. Industrial Crops and Products. 46:399-403.
Zelaya, C.A., Stevens, E.D., Dowd, M.K. 2013. Di(phenylpropylamino)gossypol: a derivative of the dimeric natural product gossypol. Acta Crystallographica Section C: Crystal Structure Communications. 69(4):439-443.
Cheng, H.N. 2012. An overview of degradable polymers. In: Khemani, K., et al., editors. Degradable Polymers and Materials: Principles and Practice. 2nd. edition. Washington,DC:American Chemical Society Symposium Series. p. xiii-xiv.