2011 Annual Report
Newly developed microwave technology that provides uniform exposure to microwave energy will be utilized to study the effects of various time and power protocols on drying rate, flavor, and shelf-life of shelled and inshell peanuts.
Peanuts shipped to Europe from the U.S., China, and Argentina were examined for oil quality and both descriptive sensory and consumer analysis of flavor to clearly demonstrated the superior quality of U.S. peanuts. Consumer studies in Europe demonstrated a preference for U.S. peanuts.
European consumer response to peanuts of different origins provided data which demonstrated that European consumers have the same concept of what constitutes acceptable/good flavor as do consumers in the U.S.
A greater percentage of peanut lots from China and Argentina have off flavors than do peanuts from the U.S. Because European consumers recognize the same off flavors as U.S. consumers there is a greater probability of consumer complaints with peanuts from China and Argentina. Sandwich windrow construction (plants placed in windrows with one up and one down providing shade for the peanuts) was demonstrated as the most effective and cost efficient method to decrease intensity of fruity fermented off flavor. Volatile compounds corresponding to artificially-created fruity fermented off-flavor and naturally occurring off-flavor proved to be different.
For oils from 9 commercially available peanut cultivars, significant variation in crystallization behavior, liquid viscosity, and liquid density were documented. Oils from high oleic varieties had the highest viscosities, lowest densities and were the last to crystallize upon equivalent cooling treatments. All data was well correlated to the fatty acid profiles of the various oils.
Samples representing most of the “Core of the Core” of the peanut germplasm collection from a three crop years were analyzed for nutritional components. Fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherols and total folates were determined.
Research was completed to determine the niacin and folate derivative concentrations in several core of the core and UPPT samples. Peanuts skins have extremely high antioxidant capacity and identification of compounds responsible has been initiated. Volatile compound analysis related to roasted peanutty flavor was conducted on peanuts of different maturity classes. Model systems prepared from high aroma active compounds were similar to roasted peanut aroma.