Location: Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products
2011 Annual Report
2: Develop technologies that enable new, commercially-viable* processes to produce food-grade corn oil, proteins, phytochemicals or other high-value coproducts from ethanol biorefineries.
3: Develop fractionation, enzymatic and/or chemical technologies that enable commercially-viable, high-value, non-fermentation hemicellulose- and cellulose-based coproducts from lignocellulosics.
* Potential commercial-viability will be regularly assessed with assistance from ONP, OTT and/or industrial partners.
Objective 2: Several new pretreatments and several new types of enzymes were identified that effectively increased the yields of corn oil from the dry milled and new generation corn germ using our ERRC aqueous enzymatic extraction method. Also, our ERRC aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process was evaluated and found to be effective for oil extraction with several species of oilseeds. Foaming can be used to concentrate the free oil in a fraction of the aqueous germ dispersion but the conditions used to digest the germ must not seriously degrade the compounds in the dispersion that stabilize the foam. To minimize the cost of centrifuging the foam fraction, it is important to maximize the oil content of that fraction. Significant improvement in the yield of free oil and free oil concentration in foam samples were obtained by changing the germ steam cooking and foam collection steps in the extraction and by using a combination of enzymes. About 80% of the oil obtained by hexane extraction can now be recovered in the foam fraction with the improved AEOE process; of this, 70% is free oil. First, most concentrated, samples of foam were 12 % free oil.
Objective 3: A procedure to isolate water soluble hemicelluloses and water insoluble cellulosic fractions from ligno-cellulosic biomass by simple and economical steam treatment without using any acid or base was investigated. The yield of hemicelluloses was lower than obtained by standard hydrogen peroxide technology used previously in our laboratory. Corn fiber gum was also isolated by an environment friendly enzymatic treatment and is being characterized to determine its functional properties.
Mukhopadhyay, S., Onwulata, C.I., Yadav, M.P., Thomas-Gahring, A.E., Tunick, M.H. 2011. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 5:10-8.
Fishman, M., Chau, H.K., Coffin, D.R., Cooke, P.H., Qi, P.X., Yadav, M.P., Hotchkiss, A.T. 2011. Physico-chemical characterization of a cellulosic fraction from sugar beet pulp. Cellulose. 18(3):787-801.
Montanti, J.M., Nghiem, N.P., Johnston, D. 2011. Production of astaxanthin from cellulosic biomass sugars by mutants of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 164:655-665.
Moreau, R.A., Liu, K., Moser, J.K., Singh, V. 2011. Changes in lipid composition during dry grind ethanol processing of corn. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 88:435-442.
Dickey, L.C., Johnston, D., Kurantz, M.J., Mcaloon, A.J., Moreau, R.A. 2011. Modification of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction to increase the yield of corn oil from dry fractionated corn germ. Industrial Crops and Products. 34:845-850.
Moreau, R.A., Hicks, K.B., Johnston, D., Laun, N.P. 2010. The composition of corn oil produced after fermentation via centrifugation from a commercial dry grind ethanol process. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 87:895-902.
Manfre, A.J., Glenn, D.M., Nunez, A., Moreau, R.A., Dardick, C.D. 2011. Light quantity and photosystem function mediate host susceptibility to turnip mosaic virus via a salicylic acid-independent mechanism. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 24(3):315-327.
Moreau, R.A. 2011. Corn oil. In: Gunstone, F.D., editor. Vegetable Oils in Food Technology-Composition, Properties and Uses. Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publishing. 10:273-289.
Henriques, A., Johnston, D., Mcaloon, A.J., Dudukovic, M.P. 2011. Reduction in energy usage during dry grind ethanol production by enhanced enzymatic dewatering of whole stillage: plant trial, process model and economic analysis. Industrial Biotechnology . 7(4)288-297.